The Demerara Distilleries - Appendix (Anhang)

The Demerara Distilleries - Appendix (Anhang) 

Aufgrund von Problemen mit Blogger sind hier ab sofort die "Fußnoten" des Artikel The Demerera Distilleries zu finden.

Quellennachweise / Fußnoten (Sources / Footnotes): 

[1] Papers relative to the West Indies, 1841, Seite 181
[2] Anuario Comercial de Las Antillas Y Países Del Caribe (The West Indies and Caribbean year book) 1973 – 1977, Seite 195
[3] Report of the Comptroller of Customs & Excise, 1953, Seite 339
[4] The West Indies and Caribbean Year Book, Band 47, Seite 168
[5] A Description of British Guiana, Geographical and Statistical, 1840, Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk 
[6] Labour Displacement in a Labour-surplus Economy: The Sugar Industry of British Guiana, Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1962 - 105 Seiten, Seite 74
[7] Accounts and papers. Seventeen Volumes (Vol. 16), 1833, Seite 700
[8] Science and mechanism, 1854, Seite 91
[9] Anuario Comercial de Las Antillas Y Países Del Caribe 1973 – 1977, Seite 195
[10] Historical events in the sugar industry1976 – 2001 http://www.guysuco.com
[11] The Four Pillars: A Genealogical Journey, Kenneth Joyce Robertson, 1999, Seite 84 - 85 
[12] Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons Seite 301 
[13] The West Indies and Caribbean Year Book, Band 47, T. Skinner, 1960, Seite 188 
[14] Crop and livestock statistic in Guyana: a compilation of existing data 1980 Seite 13 – 16 
[15] The Mirror of Parliament Session 1837-8 vol. 6, Band 6, Seite 4722,
[16] Accounts and papers. Seventeen Volumes (Vol. 16), 1833, Seite 700
[17] Account of an Insurrection of the Negro Slaves in the Colony of Demerara 1823 Seite 116
[18] Timehri: The Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana 1891 Seite 189
[19] Colonial, Ausgaben 246-250 1949 Seite 175 & 47
[20] “The versatile John Dore-Tri Canada continuous still can process wash at a rate of 250 proof gallons an hour, replacing a wooden 'Coffey' still making 120 gallons an hour.” Rum, yesterday and today, Hugh Barty-King & Anton Massel, Heinemann Verlag, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Seite 108
[21] Dictionary of Drink, Seite 612
[22] Colonial Magazine and Commercial-maritime Journal, Band 3, 1840 Seite 416
[23] Passage from India to El Dorado: Guyana and the Great Migration, Dave Hollett,1999 Seite 262
[24] Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy", Walter Rodney , Seite 87
[25] Tales of a Sugar Tramp, 1954, Émile C. Freeland, Seite 48
[26] Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy", Walter Rodney , 1979, Seite 94
[27] Annual Report of the Dept. Of Labour 1957, Seite 68, Seite 69, Seite 71, Seite 82. Seite 84
[28] Rice Storage Investigations, Ausgaben 1-5, British Guiana. Dept. of Agriculture, 1961, Seite 31
[29] Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy" 1979, Seite 93/94
[30] Bechu: Bound Coolie Radical in British Guiana 1894-1901, 1999, Clem, Seecharan, Seite 98 
[31] Colonial, Ausgaben 246-250, 1949, Seite 121
[32] The Crown Colonist, Band 18 , 1948, Seite 451
[33] Rum, yesterday and today, Hugh Barty-King & Anton Massel, 1983, Seite 101
[34] Letters from Guiana: Extracted from "Notes on the West Indies ... and the Coast of Guiana," by Dr. George Pinckard, 1796-1797, Seite 94
[35] Cane Ripples: The Chinese in Guyana, 2003, Seite 71
[36] Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, Band 29, Seite 163 
[37] Annual Report of the Dept. Of Labour 1957, Seite 82, Seite 83, Seite 157
[38] DISTURBANCES AT PLANTATION FRIENDS www.guyana.org  
[39] THE LUSIGNAN RIOT IN 1912 www.guyana.org 
[40] From Plantocracy to Nationalisation: A Profile of Sugar in Guyana 1983 Seite 405
[41] Report of the Comptroller of Customs & Excise, 1951, Seite 347/348  
[42] Report of the Comptroller of Customs & Excise, 1951, Seite 342  
[43] From Plantocracy to Nationalisation: A Profile of Sugar in Guyana 1983 Seite 39, 
[44] Conflict and solidarity in a Guianese plantation, 1963, Seite 8, 
[45] History gazette, Ausgaben 28-37;Ausgaben 42-52;Ausgaben 59-71, 1991, Seite 1 
[46] Catalogue of Contributions Transmitted from British Guiana: To the Paris Universal Exhibition, Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana, 1867, Section A  
[47] Catalogue of Contributions Transmitted from British Guiana: To the Paris Universal Exhibition, Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana, 1867, Section xIii, 
[48] Nonpareil, Guyana, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org 
[49] “McCONNELL, John

  • Born: ABT 1829
  • Married CAUSZAR, Josephine Emma: 8 APR 1865, St. Stephen's Church, Paddington LND
  • Died: 26 APR 1890, London“

[50] Kartenmarke Little Diamond http://itouchmap.com, http://travelingluck.com
[51] Kartenmarke Great Diamond http://travelingluck.com 
[52] “Meanwhile, in 1846, John McConnell went out to Demerara, prospered, and in 1874 founded the firm of John McConnell and Company, in London with himself as sole partner.” - Sea Breezes, Bände 17-18, Sea Breezes, 1954, Seite 192 
[53] Kartenmarke Schoonord http://travelingluck.com
[54] „GuySuCo has already indicated that the Diamond Estate is to be shut down as part of the corporation’s restructuring programme.” 2010 http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com
[55] „She said that her husband, who cuts cane for a living, was sent to Wales to work when the Diamond Estate closed down to allow the expansion of the housing scheme.” 2013 http://www.stabroeknews.com
[55] Kartenmarke Mon Repos http://travelingluck.com 
[56] “1881: Josias Booker II dies and a younger brother, John H. Booker, remains as the last member of the family to be a partner in the firm.

1885: John McConnell is left in control of the three companies: Booker Bros. & Co., George Booker & Co., and John McConnell & Co.
1887: The Booker company charters its first steamer. A regular service operates between Liverpool and Georgetown and is named the Liverpool Line.” - Notable Corporate Chronologies: A-K, Julie A. Mitchell, Gale Group, 2001 - 2468 Seiten, Seite 357 
[57] The Journal of the Board of Agriculture of British Guiana, Band 20, 1927, Seite 103 
[58] THE ROSE HALL DISTURBANCES IN 1913 www.guyana.org 
[59] THE RUIMVELDT SHOOTING IN 1924 www.guyana.org 
[60] Report of the Comptroller of Customs, 1951, Seite 14   
[61] House of Commons Papers, Band 24, H.M. Stationery Office, 1924, Seite 231  
[62] The Commonwealth and the Sterling Area: Statistical Abstracts, Ausgabe 50, H.M. Stationery Office, 1913, No.64,66, and 68-69 contain trade and commerce section only, Seite 187  
[63] Statistical Abstract for the Several British Self-governing Dominions, Colonies, Possessions, and Protectorates in Each Year from..., H.M. Stationery Office, 1920, Seite 206   
[64] The Commonwealth and Sterling Area: Statistical Abstracts, Ausgabe 46, H.M. Stationery Office, 1909, No.64,66, and 68-69 contain trade and commerce section only, Seite 165  
[65] “The exports for 1916 were 4,384.834 proof gallons, valued at £626,490, as against 4,698,230 proof gallons, valued at £456,725 exported in 1915. Of this 4,282,817 proof gallons went to the United Kingdom.” - International Sugar Journal, Band 19, International Sugar Journal, 1917 , Seite 568  
[66] “The exports for 1918 were 2,614,481 proof gallons, valued at £243,174, as against 3,415,920 proof gallons, valued at £558,111, exported in 1917. 2,420,946 proof gallons exported in 1918 went to the United Kingdom.” - Anglo-South American Handbook, Including Central America, Mexico and Cuba ... 1921-1922, Band 1, William Henry Koebel, Macmillan, 1921, Seite 185
[67] Thus British Guiana exported 4,342,769 gallons of rum, valued at ,£491,767; Trinidad shipped 162,830 gallons, valued at ,£34,774...” (1919) - The Red Book of the West Indies: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial, Facts, Figures, & Resources, W.H. & L. Collingridge, 1922 - 424 Seiten, Seite 18 
[68] Wert der Exporte 1926 – 1930 - British Guiana: annual report for ... presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty …, H.M. Stationery Office, 1931, Seite 10 
[69] Wert der Exporte 1927 – 1931 - British Guiana: annual report for ... presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty …, H.M. Stationery Office, 1931, Seite 15 
[70] Werte der Exporte 1930 – 1934 - British Guiana: annual report for ... presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty …, H.M. Stationery Office, 1931, Seite 15 
[71] “In addition, 8,168,250 gallons of molasses, valuated £87,440 and 1,444,877 gallons of rum, valued at £132.573, were exported.” (1936) - An Economic Survey of the Colonial Empire, H.M. Stationery Office., 1936, Seite 378 
[72] Die Jahre 1927 – 1938 - Administration Report of the Director of Agriculture, Seite 4 & 5  
[73] “The exports of sugar and its by-products during 1935 are as follows: – sugar, 174,156 tons valued at $6,926,439 ; rum, 1,073,406 proof gallons valued at $422,660; molasses, 5,949,393 gallons...” - Colonial Reports - Annual, Ausgaben 1751-1767, H.M. Stationery Office, 1936, Seite 13 
[74] “The rum produced in 1937 was 1,888,331 gallons of which 1,248,598 gallons valued at $513,241 were exported as compared with 1,444,877 worth $636,351 in 1936.” - The West Indies Year Book, Bände 1936-1944, Thomas Skinner of Canada., 1938, Seite 342  
[75] “The rum produced in 1939 was 1,422,571 proof gallons, of which 978,817 gallons valued at $430,114 were exported, as compared with 1,069,225 gallons worth $474,458 in 1938.” - Anuario Comercial de Las Antillas Y Países Del Caribe, T. Skinner, 1944, Seite 364 
[76] Die Jahre 1940 und 1941 - Report of the Director of Agriculture, British Guiana. Dept. of Agriculture, Seite 94 
[77] “The rum produced in 1943 was 2,411,817 proof gallons, of which 1,472,208 gallons valued at $947,245 were exported, as compared with 946,496 gallons valued at $586,409 in 1942. Increased orders are being secured from Canada and the U.S.A. For Demerara Liquor Rum.” - The West Indies and Caribbean Year Book, Bände 18-19, T. Skinner, 1945, Seite 375  
[78] Die Jahre 1945 – 1948 - Report of a Commission of Inquiry into the Sugar Industry of British Guiana, H.M. Stationery Office, 1949 - 184 Seiten, Seite 48 
[79] Die Jahre 1948 & 1949 - Report of the Director of Agriculture British Guiana. Dept. of Agriculture, 1951, Seite 99 
[80] Das Jahr 1950 - Report of the Director of Agriculture British Guiana. Dept. of Agriculture, 1951, Seite 6 
[81] Die Jahre 1946 und 1945 - Report of the Director of Agriculture, British Guiana. Dept. of Agriculture, 1951, Seite 38 
[82] „In British Guiana the destilleries are of three kinds:
1. Those using pot, or vat stills which are practically only modified pot stills.
2. Those using both pot stills or vat stills and Coffey or other continuous rectifying stills.
3. Those using only Coffey or other continuous rectifying stills.
There were fourty-four distilleries at work in 1905-6, forty-three in 1906-7, whilst fourty-two are at present active. Thirty-two distilleries using pot or vat stills only, three have both pot or vat stills and continuous stills, whilst seven possess continuous stills only.“ - Report[s] of the Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits, Printed for H.M. Stationery Off., by J. Truscott & Son, ltd., 1908 Seite 39  
[83]Vat stills consist of cylindrical wooden vessels built of staves strongly hooped with wrought iron. They have high copper domes covering openings in the heads of the vessels which communicate with a retort or retorts of the Jamaican pattern, but, as a rule, the retort acts as the lowest vessel of a rectifying column. As in Winter's still a spiral pipe or a series of small perpendicular pipes descend down the interior of the column through which cold water is whenever distillation is in progress, and by which the spirits vapour undergoes a process of rectification as it ascends the column before passing into the condenser. The vat stills are heated by injection of steam.” - Report[s] of the Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits, Printed for H.M. Stationery Off., by J. Truscott & Son, ltd., 1908 Seite 215  
[84] „In 1914, 27 distilleries used pot or vat stills and 9 used continuous rectifying stills.“ - Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Band 34 Society of Chemical Industry., 1915 Seite 882  
[85] „The Majority of the stils are the first kind. There are ten large continuous rectifying stills, such as the Coffey still, which were built locally, the columns being constructed of native timber.“ - The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Band 11,Teil 2, American Chemical Society, 1919 Seite 877  
[86] „13779: You have a rectifier in addition? - Yes, we have both forms of still at the Great Diamond Estate - the Coffey still and the vat still – and they give appreciably no difference in the quality of the rum.“ - Report[s] of the Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits, Printed for H.M. Stationery Off., by J. Truscott & Son, ltd., 1908 Seite 43 
[87] „...of pot or vat-stills, or of pot-stills combined with Coffey and other continuous rectifying stills, or of Coffey stills only. In 1921 there were 21 distilleries of the first kind, 3 of the second and 6 for the last. The Coffey or continuous rectifying stills used are of well-known types and are usually built locally, their columns being constructed of colony-grown timber.“ - The British Guiana Handbook, 1922: Containing General and Statistical Information Concerning the Colony, Its Industries, Manufactures and Commerce, "The Argosy" Company, Limited, 1923 - 300 Seiten, Seite 127 
[88] „NOTE—Distillery at Pln. Houston was closed throughout 1937 and 1938.“
- Administration Reports, for the Year..., British Guiana, 1940, Seite 24 
[89] „The number of rum distilleries in this Colony is now 53, a reduction of 56 in the number since 1881, when it stood at 109.“ - Papers by Command, Band 44, H.M. Stationery Office, 1903, Seite 21 
[90] “The chief destinations for Jamaica rum are Great Britain, Germany, and the United States. Production of rum in British Guiana increased to 1,818,000 gallons in 1935 and 1,073,000 gallons were exported, chiefly to the United Kingdom, Canada, and other British possessions.” - Trade Agreement Between the United States and the United Kingdom, Digests of Trade Data with Respect to Products on which Concessions in Tariff Treatment Were Granted by the United States, Bände 5-8, 1938, Seite 825 
[91] Tabelle von 1919 – 1924 (Production / Export) - The Agricultural Journal of British Guiana, Bände 5-6, Department of agriculture., 1934, Seite 104
[92] Tabelle von 1925 – 1933 (Production / Export) - The Agricultural Journal of British Guiana, Bände 5-6, Department of agriculture., 1934, Seite 104 + 17 
[93] “The expected collapse of the sugar industry following the end of slavery in 1838 did not materialize; however, a crisis did hit in the mid-1880s, fuelled primarily by the emerge of cheap, subsidized European beet sugar, which forced prices down.” - Order and Place in a Colonial City: Patterns of Struggle and Resistance in late 1800s, Juanita De Barros, 2003, Seite 20 
[94] „The Act, combined with the recent abolition of slavery had a devastating effect on Caribbean economies, which had previously enjoyed preferential treatment in relation to import duties from the West Indies. There were in fact two Sugar Duties Acts in 1846 (c.41 and c.63), one being a replacement for the other. With no cheap labour force and no preferential tariff protection, the plantation-owners in the British West Indies could not compete with Cuba and Brazil, where sugar was still produced using slave labour.” - Sugar Duties Act 1846, WIKIPEDIA, http://en.wikipedia.org/
[95] “In 1884 a surplus of beet sugar flooded the British market and began entering the United States market; this resulted in a price fall that, according to Adamson, was exceeded only by the one that followed the passage of the Sugar Duties Act in the 1840s. Heavily dependent upon sugar, British Guiana's entire economy was affected by this crop's decline. By the late 1880s prices stabilized somewhat, remaining relatively level for five or six years. After 1893 prices began to fall sharply again and continued to do so for the next ten years.” - Order and Place in a Colonial City: Patterns of Struggle and Resistance in late 1800s, Juanita De Barros, 2003, Seite 20 
[96] “The mid 1890s drop was caused by two developments in the international sugar market. The first was the introduction of an artificial coloured yellow beet sugar that undercut the value of British Guiana's Demerara sugar. The second was the 40 per cent tariff the United States government placed on all sugars in 1894.” - Order and Place in a Colonial City: Patterns of Struggle and Resistance in late 1800s, Juanita De Barros, 2003, Seite 20 
[97] “British refiners also used yellow dyes to colour beet sugar and therefore replicate the characteristic colour of the Demerara Crystals, which were popular in British grocery store items.” - Economy and Environment in the Caribbean: Barbados and the Windwards in the late 1800s, 1997, Bonham C. Richardson, Seite 22 & 23 
[98] “The annual reports of the 1890s noted the decline in the value of sugar, its deleterious effect on rum and molasses exports, and the frequent abandonment of estates. Planters cut their production costs, but conditions did not really improve until the Brussel Sugar Act of 1902 and the easing of bounties for beet sugar.” - Order and Place in a Colonial City: Patterns of Struggle and Resistance in late 1800s, Juanita De Barros, 2003, Seite 20 
[99] “Besides having the advantages of large-scale production leading to lower prices, European producers of sugar and sugar-based products developed other techniques intended to capture the British market. They use charcoal in their refining process to adsorb impurities and produce white sugar crystals, as opposed to the less attractive grayish crystals usually coming from the Caribbean sugar colonies.” - Economy and Environment in the Caribbean: Barbados and the Windwards in the late 1800s, 1997, Bonham C. Richardson, Seite 22 
[100] “According to Michael Moohr, between 1903 and 1910 prices for British Guiana's sugar remained “fairly stable”, but primarily due to the Brussels Convention. The drought of August 1911 to April 1912 resulted in the biggest decrease in the value of sugar exports since 1893-94, affecting production for 1913 as well.” - Order and Place in a Colonial City: Patterns of Struggle and Resistance in late 1800s, Juanita De Barros, 2003, Seite 20 
[101] “An economic slump followed the war's end as sugar prices fell to a nineteen-year low ans the demand for rum declined, the war itself having constricted German markets and prohibition the US ones. The wartime profits went to pay depts and to buy machinery at inflated prices, leaving many planters unable to repay their advances on the prices anticipated for the 1920 crop and, consequently, heavily indebted. In 1922 British Guiana's economy was in a depression.” - Order and Place in a Colonial City: Patterns of Struggle and Resistance in late 1800s, Juanita De Barros, 2003, Seite 21 
[102] “Prohibition in the United States, the discontinuance of the demand from Germany, and the high import duties in the United Kingdom were the main causes of the decline in the rum industry.” - British West Indies: Economic and Commercial Conditions in the Eastern Carribbean (Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Bermuda, British Guiana, the Leeward and Windward Islands), H.M. Stationery Office, 1924, Seite 10 
[103] Der Streik auf der Leonora Plantage im Februar 1939. Quelle: http://www.guyana.org/ https://en.wikipedia.org
[104] The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume IV: The Twentieth Century, Judith Brown,Wm Roger Louis, 1999 Seite ccclxvii 
[105] The Enmore Martyrs http://www.guyana.org
[106] “This is Josias Booker (Jnr.), eldest of five sons of Josias Booker (Snr.) who originally founded the firm.” - Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy", Release Publishers, 1979 - 97 Seiten, Walter Rodney, Seite 93 
[107]“They capped their preparatory activities with the 1834 establishment of Booker Brothers & Co. in British Guyana and the acquisition of their first transport ship the following year. After Richard Booker died in 1838, Josias and George consolidated vertically, purchasing sugar plantations throughout British Guyana.” - International directory of company histories, Band 13, St. James Press, 12.12.1995 - 750 Seiten, Tina Grant, Seite 102 
[108] In 1900, the two leading sugar operators – Booker Brothers and John McConnell and Company – combined to form Booker Brothers McConnell and Company Limited, a London-based, limited liability company.” - U. S. Intervention in British Guiana: A Cold War Story, Stephen G. Rabe, Seite 20 
[109] “This is Josias Booker (Jnr.), eldest of five sons of Josias Booker (Snr.) who originally founded the firm. Josias (Jnr.) came to British Guiana in 1845. he was resident and a member of the Court of Policy until July 1880. he died in England in October 1881. John McConnell was from Liverpool. He teamed up with the Bookers after his arrival in 1846 and acquired a one-sixth share in 1854. In 1874, he founded the firm of J. McConnell & Co. in London, using it to handle the business of Bookers in Demerara as well as trading on his own account. He died in 1890. These two, with Russell, were the proprietors of La Bonne Intention from 1870 to 1881.” - Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy", Release Publishers, 1979 - 97 Seiten, Walter Rodney, Seite 93 
[110] Ein gewisser John McConnell ist in der Aufzeichung der Unterstützer der Paris Universal Exhibition 1867 eingetragen. Ihm gehörte die Plantage Tuschen de Vrienden, welche zum genannten Zeitraum Zucker anpflanzte. - Catalogue of Contributions Transmitted from British Guiana: To the Paris Universal Exhibition 1867, Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana, Seite 4 Anhang 
[111] Timehri: The Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana, Sir Everard Ferdinand Im Thurn, J. Thomson, 1917, Seite 1  
[112] Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1851 Seite 297  
[113] Yearbook of the Bermudas, the Bahamas, British Guiana, British Honduras, and the British West Indies, T. Skinner of Canada., 1934, Seite 304  
[114] „Closer association, including the co-ordination of management, is planned between the Booker Group and S. Davson & Co. Ltd. The boards of the two companies are engaged in working out the details, which will be based largely on an exchange of shares between Bookers Sugars Estates Ltd. and Davsons.. Simon Davson arrived in British Guiana in 1814, a year earlier than Josais Booker, and in 1816 founded the firm of S. Davson & Co. in New Amsterdam. The company owns Blairmont with an annual sugar production of about 20,000 tons, in addition to a cattle ranch, a lime grove, and a foundry, as well as a general trading buisness holding valuable agencies.“ - International Sugar Journal, Band 57, International Sugar Journal, 1955, Seite 366 
[115] „As the result of a merger recently agreed to, the partners, principals and staff of Messrs. Curtis Campbell & Co. joined Booker Bros., McConnell & Co., Ltd., Mr. C. H. Campbell and Mr. E. R. Campbell becoming member s of the Board of Directors.“ - Anuario Comercial de Las Antillas Y Países Del Caribe T. Skinner, 1944, Seite 21 
[116] In 1900 a Private Limited Company was formed under the title Booker Brothers, McConnell & Co., Limited. In 1939 the Company amalgamated with a similar concern owned by Messrs Curtis, Campbell & Co., a firm which had originated in about 1780 and had, since that date, been producer of sugar and its by-products. They owned some estates which had originally been the properties of John Campbell Senior & Co., of Glasgow. A member of the sixth generation of descendants of this John Campbell is the present Chairman of the Booker Group of Companies.” - Bookers sugar, 1954 - 126 Seiten, Seite 17 
[117] The West Indies and Caribbean Year Book, Bände 31-39;Bände 41-45;Band 47, T. Skinner, 1960, Seite 180  
[118] “In May 1966 the PNC Regime took control of the enormous assets of Booker McConnell after it agreed to pay close to G$500 million in compensation out of future profits.” - Dependency and Socialism in the Modern Caribbean: Superpower Intervention in the modern Caribbean, Euclid A. Rose, 2002, Seite 187 
[119] „In the twentieth century, Guyanese jested that British Guiana should be called Bookers Guiana“.“ - U. S. Intervention in British Guiana: A Cold War Story, Stephen G. Rabe, Seite 21 
[120] Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, Plantation Albion, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/
[121] Karte von Berbice ca. 1720, Zeichner unbekannt, Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, http://maps.bpl.org
[122] Karte von 1798, Zeichner: F. von Bouchenroeder, http://dpc.uba.uva.nl/
[123] Anhang der Karte von 1798 mit den Namen der Plantagen, Zeichner: F. von Bouchenroeder, Teil1, http://dpc.uba.uva.nl
[124] Anhang der Karte von 1798 mit den Namen der Plantagen, Zeichner: F. von Bouchenroeder, Teil2, http://dpc.uba.uva.nl
[125] Bulletin / Commission de l'histoire des eglises wallonnes, Band 3, 1888, Seite 359, 
[126] Schuldhypothek eines François Changuion (Plantage La Bonne Intention), Quelle: http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl
[127] Karte von 1786, Zeichner unbekannt, http://dpc.uba.uva.nl
[128] Slaves and Highlanders, William Ross of Skeldon, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders 
[129] Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, Plantation Skeldon, http://www.ucl.ac.uk
[130] Verzeichnis der Kolonisten in British Guiana, R, http://www.vc.id.au
[131] Slaves and Highlanders, Lambert Blair, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders
[132] Karte von 1759, Zeichner: Laurens Lodewyk Bercheyck, http://dpc.uba.uva.nl
[133] Verzeichnis der Kolonisten in British Guiana, L, http://www.vc.id.au
[134] Ausgabe der Royal Gazette, 1816 April 20, http://www.vc.id.au
[135] Slaves and Highlanders, Thomas Porter, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders
[136] Thomas Porter, Crossconections, http://www.crosseconnections.org.uk
[137] Verzeichnis der Kolonisten in British Guiana, P, http://www.vc.id.au
[138] Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, Plantation Enmore, http://www.ucl.ac.uk
[139] Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, Plantation Paradise, http://www.ucl.ac.uk
[140] Slaves and Highlanders, Mackenzie of Redcastle, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders
[141] Kenneth Francies MacKenzie,Quelle Ancestry.com, http://records.ancestry.com
[142] Verzeichnis der Kolonialisten in British Guiana, M, http://www.vc.id.au
[143] Gazette Issue 17942 published on the 22 July 1823. Seite 9 & 19, http://www.london-gazette.co.uk http://www.london-gazette.co.uk
[144] Legacies of British Slave-Ownership,Plantage Port Mourant, http://www.ucl.ac.uk
[145] Karte von 1759 mit zusätzlichen Hinweisen, Zeichner: Laurens Lodewyk Bercheyck, http://dpc.uba.uva.nl
[146] Van Heemskerck Düker, J.B.C.F. Boode http://www.faeton.nl
[147] Verzeichnis der Kolonialisten in British Guiana, B, http://www.vc.id.au
[148] Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, De Groote & Kleine Uitvlugt, http://www.ucl.ac.uk http://www.ucl.ac.uk
[149] Van Heemskerck Düker, Andreas Boode http://www.faeton.nl
[150] John Christian Boode only son of Andrew Christian of Amsterdam Holland, arm., matriculated Oriel College 13/05/1824 aged 18; m. Clementina-Elizabeth-Mary [daughter of Admiral Sir Henry William Bayntun, 'sole representative' of the Werden of Leyland family] 06/06/1835: one daughter Christine Ellen Lydia Boode (born abt 1835) m. John Hippisley junior 1863 and another, Constance Ellen Susette, married Benjamin Winthrop. J.C. Boode, who was born in Amsterdam abt 1807, was party to a messy case if adultery in the 1840s. At his death on 01/02/1870 he left £50,000 in personalty.” - Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, http://www.ucl.ac.uk
[151] Slaves and Highlanders, Carter, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders
[152] Storm Van 's Gravesande: The Rise of British Guiana, Band 27, Hakluyt Society, 1911, Seite 400 & 702,   
[153] Accounts and papers, Band 9, Great Britain House of Commons, 1851, Seite 300 LINK
[154] „The proprietors referred to were Steele & Loxdale, who bought Great Diamond in 1848 and Little Diamond in 1856.“ - Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy", 1979 - 97 Seiten, Seite 90
[155] London Gazette Ausgabe 24380 vom 10 November 1876, Seite 5967 & 5975 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk http://www.london-gazette.co.uk
[156] „I am chairman and managing director of the Demerara Company, Limited, owners of Plantation Diamond, producing 17,500 tons sugar, and Wales, producing 5,300 tons, total 22,800 approximately. This company was formed in 1891with estates producing a crop of 7000 tons.“ - Report[s] of the Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits, Baron Henry James James, Printed for H.M. Stationery Off., by J. Truscott & Son, ltd., 1908, Seite 41  
[157] “13724 Have you estates in British Guiana? - The Demerara Company, Limited and the Leonora Company, Limited, whom I represent, have three, which compromise a great many smaller ones, which have been amalgamated into three larger concerns. The names are Great Diamond, Wales, which up to 1877 belonged to Mr. Gladstone, and Leonora; and then I am also a shareholder in the New Colonial Company, Limited.” - Report of the Committee, Commonwealth Shipping Committee, H.M. Stationery Office, 1910, Band 27, Seite 245 
[158] „In 1967 the distillery buisness of Diamond Estate was vested in a new company, Diamond Liquors Ltd.. This was a public company . Thirty-three per cent of the shares was subscribed for locally, but the majority washeld by Demerara Company Holdings.“ - From Plantocracy to Nationalisation: A Profile of Sugar in Guyana, University of Guyana, 1983 - 440 Seiten, M. Shahabuddeen, Seite 109 
[159] „The Volume of production at Guyana Distilleries Uitvlugt distillery had been increased three times since it was first built by Bookers in 1960. For under a scheme of rationalisationit had taken over the output of four distilleries scrapped in 1969.“ -Rum, yesterday and today, Heinemann, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Hugh Barty-King & Anton Massel, Seite 108 
[160] „Guyana Distilleries with its main plant at Uitvlugt, together with its wholly owned subisdiary Demerara Distilleries, with a plant at Enmore, was a public company with more than 1200 shareholders including employees, in which the Guyana Goverment had a majority 70 per cent interest.“ - Rum, yesterday and today, Heinemann, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Hugh Barty-King & Anton Massel, Seite 106 
[161] „Demerara Distilleres Limited
History: Established in 1983 as a result of a merger between Guyana Distilleries Ltd. and Diamond Liquors Limited and their wholly owned subsidiares.“ - Moody's International Manual, Band 2, The Service, 1993, Seite 3289 
[162] „William Russell – born in Scotland, 1827, arrived in Berbice 1847; knighted short before his death in March 1888. He acquired Tuschen in 1863.“ - Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy",Release Publishers, 1979 - 97 Seiten, Walter Rodney, 
[163] Booker, Josias, Heirs of, part proprietor of Cane Grove, Greenfield, De Willem, La Bonne Intention, Rose Hall, Uitvlugt.

McConnell, John, part proprietor ofCane Grove, De Willem, La Bonne Intention, Rose Hall, Tuschen de Vrienden, Uitvlugt.
Russell, Hon. William, part proprietor of La Bonne Intention, Rose Hall, Tuschen de Vrienden.“ - Rootsweb Ancestry Guyana, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com 
[164] James Blair, The House of Commons, 1790-1820, History of Parliament Trust, R. G. Thorne, Seite 216 
[165] “Lambert's heir was his nephew, who became an MP supporting the interests of West Indian slave owners.” - Slave and Highlanders, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders 
[166] “British Guiana 558 (La bonne intention)

Claim Details & Associated Individuals

29th May 1837 | 266 Enslaved | £13378 13S 7D

Claim Notes

Parliamentary Papers p. 318.

T71/885: claim by Retemeyer, as substituted attorney for the Bentincks, as owner in fee. Counterclaim by Daniel Willink, of Liverpool, a merchant, for mortgages of £10065 17s 6d and £29,287 9s 1d.

T71/429 p. 228: enslaved persons were registered in 1832 for E. [= C.] A.F. and H.J. Wm. Bentinck, by W. C. Retemeyer.
T71/1256: claim from Charles Anthony Ferdinand Bentinck and Henry John William Bentinck, both of Wilton Place. The file includes the agreement under which the claim was settled: the money went to Daniel Willink, accounts to be made up, with the Colonels Bentinck to pay a further amount to bring the total up to £33,000 (estimated at £16,000 in the agreement).” - Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, claim 558 (La bonne intention) www.ucl.ac.uk 
[167] Verzeichnis der Kolonialisten in British Guiana, D http://www.vc.id.au
[168] “DAVSON, Edward Rae: Sugar Estate Proprietor; son of Sir Henry Katz Davson, Deputy Chairman, West India Committee; partner in London firm of H.K. Davson & Co., Director of S. Davson & Co., Ltd., Berbice, the Blairmont Sugar Plantation, Ltd., the Guiana Gold Co., Ltd., and the West Indian Produce Association, Ltd.; contributor to "Empire Review" and other publications more especially on Imperial questions; has visited the interior of the colony on several occasions, and keeps in close touch with the affairs of the colony which he visits often.” - rootsweb, (1909 Argosy Directory of British Guiana) http://boards.rootsweb.com 
[169] „Q. 4262. The president—What are the estates for which you are attorney?--A. Well to begin with, Hampton Court, on the Arabian Coast. I am at present also acting for Anna Regina as planting attorney. I then come come across to west coast, where I am attorney and part proprietor of Plantation Tuschen De Vrienden. The next estate on the west coast of which I am attorney is Plantation De Willem ; then Zeeburg, Leonora and Anna Catherina. They are combined in one large estate. You may call it one very large estate, making about 3,000 hogheads of sugar, where my residence is. 

Q. 4263 Are these all?-- A. The next estate is Windsor Forest, on the same coast, and Haarlem. These two estates join each other ; you may almost call them one ; they soon will be one combined estate. We then go up the river to Plantation Farm and Peters Hall, on the east bank of Demerara river ; then Plantation Success, on the east coast, and La Bonne Intention ; of that estate I am part proprietor.” - Evidence and Proceedings .., British Guiana. Commission of Enquiry into the Treatment of Immigrants,William Edward Frere (chairman.), 1870, Seite 105 
[170] “Il mark definisce pertanto il rum non l’alambicco. Inoltre alcuni rum posso avere due varianti e avranno quindi due diversi marks: come ad esempio Enmore che poteva essere fatto normale o light, e quindi si chiameranno EHP oppure ELCR.” - Velier website http://www.velier.it
Sinngemäße Übersetzung: Die Marks definieren somit den Rum, nicht die Still. Darüber hinaus können einige Rums in zwei Varianten hergestellt werden und haben daher zwei verschiedene Marks: z.B. konnte Enmore einmal normal oder leicht gemacht werden, und dann werden sie entweder EHP oder ELCR genannt.
[171] Karte von 1802, Kolonie Berbice, Zeichner: Friedrich von Bouchenroeder, World Digital Library - http://www.wdl.org
[172] THE SESSIONAL PAPERS PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS, OR PRESENTED BY ROYAL COMMAND, Vol. 31 , 1847, Seite 94, 
[173] “Incredibly, the single wooden pot still was reconstructed with new wood in 2006, so even in this high-tech age it is possible to build a wooden pot still.“ - Diffordsguide http://www.diffordsguide.com
[174] Patent von Dèsirè Savalle, US Patent No. US79260A (23. Juni 1868) – http://www.google.com/patents/
[175] A Short History of the Art of Distillation: From the Beginnings Up to the Art of Distillation, Robert J. Forbes, 1948, 
[176] “The next proprietor of the three properties united as Penninghouse, was James Blair, West Indian planter, Berbice, British Guiana. He purchased the property in 1825. Previously, in 1815, he married Elizabeth-Catherine, youngest daughter of Lieut.-General the Hon. Edward Stopfor(second son of James, first Earl of Courtoun, by Letitia, daughter of the late William Blacker of Carrick Blacker). He had no issue. He died 1841, and left the property to his brother-in-law, William Henry Stopford, Colonel Royal Artillery (his wife's eldest brother), who married, in 1825, Mira-Sophia, daughter of the late Lieut.-Colonel Robert Bull, C.B., and has no issue. 
Colonel Stopford assumed the surename and arms of Blair. He died September 1868, and was succeeded by his son.” - History of the Lands and Their Owners in Galloway: With a Historical , Band 1, MDCCCLXX, Seite 309 
[177] International Exhibition 1862 Medals and honouarable mentions awarded by the international juries, 2nd edition, 1862, Seite 77 
[178] Catalog of contributions transmitted from British Guiana to the London Exhibition of 1862. London International Exhibition of 1862, Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana, Georgetown, Demerara, R. Short, 1862.
[179] Catalog of the exhibits of British Guiana with Notes from J.J. Quelch 1893 - Digital Library http://babel.hathitrust.org/  
[180] Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1851, Seite 287-290 
[181] Official Report of the Calcutta International Exhibition, 1883-84: Compiled Under the Orders of the Executive Committee, Band 1, Bengal Secretariat Press, 1885 ,Seite 37   
[182] The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and ..., Band 4, 1842, Seite 579 
[183] The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and ..., Band 4, 1842, Seite 580 
[184] Karte von Berbice aus dem Jahre 1802 mit den Küstenregionen - World Digital Library, Zeichner Friedrich von Bouchenroeder, http://www.wdl.org 
[185] Karte von der Ostküste Demerara 1823, Bryant Joshua (1824) – http://en.wikipedia.org/ 
[186] Namen der Plantagen auf der Karte von 1823 - 
[187] Karte von Berbice 1780, Johannes van Keulen - WIKIPEDIA http://en.wikipedia.org http://maps.bpl.org/ 
[188] Karte von Berbice 1720, Künstler unbekannt, WIKIPEDIA, http://en.wikipedia.org 
[189] Flagge von Guyana – WIKIPEDIA http://commons.wikimedia.org 
[190] Flagge von British Guiana – WIKIPEDIA http://commons.wikimedia.org 
[191] Karte der Dutch Colonies – WIKIPEDIA http://commons.wikimedia.org 
[192] Karte von West- und Ost-Berbice, Künstler und Datierung unbekannt – http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com 
[193] Karte von Ost-Berbice, Künstler und Datierung unbekannt - http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com 
[194] Catalog of the Paris Universal Exhibition 1878, http://rumbooks.rumicek.cz 
[195] Report - Royal commission for the Paris universal exhibition of 1878, 1880,   
[196] Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, Band 45, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1841, Seite 160 
[197] Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1851 Seite 301 
[198] The Guyana Story: From Earliest Times to Independence, Odeen Ishmael, Seite 18 
[199] The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 8, The American and French..., Albert Goodwin – 1976, Seite 416 
[200] “The Demerara Colony, established on the Demerara river, between Essequibo and Berbice rivers, owed its founding to the the economic difficulties of Essequibo and to the administrative talents of Laurens Storm van's Gravesande who became the Commandeur of Essequibo in 1742.“
YPL2, Bände 11-13, University of York, Department of Language., 1984, Seite 84,  
[201] Timehri, 3rd ser v. 7 1921 http://archive.org http://archive.org 
[202] The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815, Johannes Postma, 2008, Seite 219 
[203] Storm Van 's Gravesande: The Rise of British Guiana, Hakluyt Society, 1911, Seite 676 
[204] Storm van's Gravesande; the rise of British Guiana (1911), Seite 650 http://archive.org http://archive.org
[205] History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice: From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, Pieter Marinus Netscher, Kapitel 10 
[206] Slaves and Highlanders, Berbice http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders
[207] Karte von 1784, Plantagen in Demerara mit Besitzern, Karteiname 1498, Zeichner unbekannt, gahetNA http://www.gahetna.nl 
[208] Karte von 1792, Karteiname 1499A, Zeichner: Bernhard Albinus, gahetNA, Teil 1, http://www.gahetna.nl (1499A)
[209] Karte von 1792, Karteiname 1499B, Zeichner: Bernhard Albinus, gahetNA, Teil 2, http://www.gahetna.nl (1499B)
[210] Karte von 1783, Plantagen an der Küste v. Demerara, Karteiname 1797B, Zeichner unbekannt (französisch) gahetNA http://www.gahetna.nl (1797B)
[211] Karte von 1783, Plantagen am Fluss Demerara, Karteiname 1797A, Zeichner unbekannt (französisch), gahetNA http://www.gahetna.nl (1797A)
[212] Karte vom Oktober 1798, Berbice & Demerara & Essequibo, Karteiname 661, Zeichner: Captn. Thomas Walker, Ga Het Na, http://www.gahetna.nl http://www.gahetna.nl
[213] Karte von Berbice aus dem Jahr 1802, Karteiname 1577A, Zeichner: Friedrich von Bouchenroeder, gahetNA, http://www.gahetna.nl (1577A)
[213] Anhang der Karte von Berbice aus dem Jahr 1802, Karteiname 1577B, Zeichner: Friedrich von Bouchenroeder,gahetNA, http://www.gahetna.nl (1577B)
[214] I undersigned , at the request of aforesaid curators , do hereby sommun by edict for the fourth time ex superabundanti, all crditors or claimants in the late firm of Ross and Sinclair, or Plantation Nigg, situated within this colony, or on the separate estates of of John Ross and James Sinclair, to give in their claims in person, or by proxy, before the bar of the Court of Civil Justice, at their sessions, which will be held in the moth July 1814, there to hear the objections made thereunto , if necessary, and further to proceed according to law, on pain, to all such who remain in default, of being for ever debarred their right to claim.” - 16th February 1814 – London Gazette, Issue 16885 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk
[215] „Plantation Albion and Nigg, being Lots Nos, 5 and 6, containing 500 acres of land each.“ - Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1851, Seite 301, 
[216] Whereas I the undersigned, by authority obtained from His Excellency J. Murray, Brigadier-General and Acting Governor of Berbices depedencies, &c. &c. &c. granted upon a petition of F. Cort, as attorney of Charles Simpson, John Wilson, and Alexander Grant, who are attornies for John and Robert Gladstone, of Liverpool, Merchants, have caused to be taken in execution and sequestration, the cotton estate Port Mourant, situated on the Corentyne coast of this Colony, with all its slaves, buildings, cultivations, &c. the property of the said Stephen Mourant.“ - 30th May 1813 - London Gazette, Issue 16794 http://www.london-gazette.co.uk
[217] Karte von Demerara 1776, Karteiname 1510, Zeichner: C.W. Desbarets. H.v. Cooten, Ga Het Na, http://www.gahetna.nl 
[218] Karte von Demerara 1776, Karteiname 1511, Zeichner: Ch. Desbarets. H.v. Cooten, Ga Het Na, http://www.gahetna.nl
[219] Karte von Berbice 1802, Karteiname 1577A, Zeichner: Friedrich von Bouchenroeder, Ga Het Na, http://www.gahetna.nl
[220] Anhang der Karte von 1802, Karteiname 1577B, Zeichner: Friedrich von Bouchenroeder, Ga Het Na, http://www.gahetna.nl
[221] Karte von Demerara 1776, Karteiname 1512, Zeichner: Ch. Desbarets. H.v. Cooten, Ga Het Na, http://www.gahetna.nl 
[222] Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1851 Seite 297 
[223]Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1851 Seite 298 
[224] „Harold Birkett - Details of Experience…..
Albion Distilleries, Albion, Guyana (1965 - 1967)

Manager - Fermentation, distillation, aging, blending, warehousing rum for 10,000 liter/day pot still batch rum plant and 6000 liter/day continuous still rum plant.“ - lsuagcenter.com 
[225] „The first wooden pot in this set up has a capacity of 3,000 gallons and the second 2,000 gallons, giving this double still a total capacity of 5,000 gallons.” - Diffordsguide
[226] Official Report of the Calcutta International Exhibition, 1883-84: Compiled Under the Orders of the Executive Committee, Band 1, Bengal Secretariat Press, 1885 ,Seite 51
[227] „The other document which gives for the foundation of the colony of Essequibo an earlier date than 1621, lies in the library of the British Museum, where it bears the mark "Sloane MSS., 8662." It is a thin bound volume, lettered on its back " Var. Tracts on the E. and W. Indies." The book is, however, all written by a single hand, and the author has made no effort to conceal his identity, for the volume begins with an elaborate preface, to which he has signed, at the end, his name in full-- “John Scott." It is an autograph fragment, or rather a collection of sketches and materials, belonging to an unpublished and probably never finished work on the islands and coasts of America, from Newfoundland to the Amazon, and its author is that Major John Scott, once of Long Island, who, after an all too prominent part in the politics of New England and New York, had fled to Barbados, and who while there had been chosen to lead the expedition which in 1665-66 captured for England the Dutch colonies in Guiana. Among the chapters here completed are those on Guiana and on the West Indian islands, Barbados, Grenada and Tobago. The first named of these chapters, with a long extract from the second, was a few years ago transcribed by a colonial scholar (though apparently without discovery of its authorship) and published in a Guiana newspaper. Thence it was copied into the book of a missionary, Bronkhurst, and so reached the world of scholars. Its reception by historians has not been flattering, and the name of its author will hardly add greatly to its weight, for Scott's reputation for accuracy of statement is not unimpeached. His facilities for information were, however, remarkable, and especially so for Guiana. For his statement as to the founding of the colony of Essequibo in 1616 by one Captain Gromwegle, and for the reasons why it must be doubted, I may refer to the report of Professor Jameson.
I have only to add that my own examination of the manuscript records, while vindicating Scott in assigning to 1664 the death of Groenewegel, and while carrying back to 1645 that governor's advent in the colony, brings to light no earlier mention of him in the books of the West India Company, and convinces me that he could not earlier have been commandeur on the Essequibo. That in 1616 he or any other, built there a fort seems unlikely, from the fact that a fort needed to be built there in 1637. That he may in that year have come to some other Guiana colony is not impossible, though the records of the Zeeland admiralty for this and the adjacent years fail to show the name of such a captain. In view of the fact that Scott credits to Groenewegel's " ingenious observations*' only a part of the particulars of this story, and in view of his demonstrable inaccuracy as to dates and names in what else he tells us of the beginnings of colonization in Guiana, I think it must be felt that, though there are doubtless elements of truth in his story, his authority is much too slight for a statement else so unsupported, and so inconsistent with facts better known. Is it not more probable that Scott has confused with the original establishment of the Dutch in the Essequibo the founding of the first colony, of planters there --- the Nova Zeelandia of the
Walcheren cities --- in 1658? Of the latter Groenewegel was, as we shall presently see, indeed the first Commander, and so in a sense the founder.
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seiten 38 + 39 archive.org
[228] “Alléén vonden wij in een in 1883 door den Engelschen raissionaris Bronkhurst te London uitgegeven werk getiteld “The colony of British Guiana and its labouring population” iets dat daarop betrekking heeft, Hij haalt namelijk een fragment aan uit een manuscript der Sloane Collection (British Museum), waarin gesproken wordt van een zekeren Hollandschen kapitein Gromweagle, die in 1616 het fort Kijkoveral zou hebben gebouwd , daarvan 48 jaren Commandeur zou zijn gebleven en eindelijk aldaar in 1664 op 83-jarigen leeftijd als een zeer rijk man zou zijn overleden! Dit onwaarschijnlijke verhaal wordt daarenboven zoo geheel weérsproken , door een tal van juiste data betreffende Commandeurs van Essequebo gedurende dat tijdvak, die wij in het Rijksarchief vonden en hieronder nader zuUen mededeelen, dat wij er ons verder niet mede zuUen bezig houden. Wij hebben er alleen melding van gemaakt, omdat de naam Gromweagle ons voorkomt eene naar Engelsche manier gevormde verbastering van Groenewegel te zijn, de naam van een Hollandschen schipper, die werkelijk, zoo als wij zien zullen, van 1657 tot 1665 of 1666 als Commandeur op Kijkoveral fungeerde; zie hierachter Hoofstnk IV en noot 30 ; hetgeen dus de aanleiding tot bovengenoemd fantastisch verliaal kan zijn geweest *)”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 42 archive.org archive.org
  • Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. The counter-case of the United States of Venezuela before the tribunal of arbitration to convene at Paris, under the provisions of the treaty between the United States of Venezuela and Her Britannic Majesty signed at Washington, Feb. 2, 1897 (1898), Seite 37 - 39 archive.org

[229]
No.13
[Action on this point, September 16, 1624,]
As to the tenth point, namely, that the deputies of Zeeland will please bring with them the instructions given to the ships bound for the Amazons, and further information as to the condition of things in that quarter, and that the deputies of all the Chambers shall come instructed, bo as to devise means for the securing of that region, whether by the planting of suitable colonies or otherwise, there was read the memorial submitted by the Zeeland deputies, in order to show the instructions given to the Amazon ships, and a copy thereof was asked by each of the Chambers, so as later to take action thereon.
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 39 archive.org
[230]
[December 10, 1626]
„Resolved, To let Jacob Canyn come home from Essequibo, as he asks to do, and to fill bis place with another.”
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 43 archive.org
[231]
[December 12, 1626.] 
Johannes Beverlander is taken into the service of the Company for three years, to lie in the river of Essequibo along with Jan Adriaansz. van der Goes (Jan Adriaenss van der Goes im original / niederländisch); and that for twenty-one guilders a month. . . . “
Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of

[232]
[August 28, 1627.] 
On the report of the committee above named, resolved, To raise the wages of Jan van der Goes in Essequibo, after his first three years (for which he is bound to the Company), to five pounds Flemish a month, and to send the supplies asked by him as is set down in the request, together with other necessaries, and to authorize him to retain five or six men out of the ship Arent, and that by next [ship] we shall send him 30 men and cause a fort to be made. Mr. de Moor has undertaken to attend to all the aforesaid necessaries.”
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 45 archive.org
[233]
[August 23 1627.]
“On the report of the committee above named, resolved, To raise the wages of Jan van der Goes in Essequibo, after his first three years (for which he is bound to the Company), to five pounds Flemish a month, and to send the supplies asked by him as is set down in the request, together with other necessaries, and to authorize him to retain five or six men out of the ship Arent, and that by next [ship] we shall send him 30 men and cause a fort to be made [“maecken” im Original]. Mr. de Moor has undertaken to attend to all the aforesaid necessaries....
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 45 archive.org
[234]
[April 8, 1632]
“On the report of Messrs. de Moor and Eltsdyck, after speaking with Van der Goes, it was resolved not to abandon the colony at Esseqnibo.”
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 65 archive.org
[235]
No.26
[May 5, 1644.]
There were read the following letters: One to Adriaen Jansz., Commandeur, and Adriaen van de Woestyne, Clerk, at Fort Kykoveral in Essequibo, dated May 5. 1
…..”
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 103 archive.org
[236] “Uitboofde dier moeielijkheden wenscbte de Kamer Zeeland zich in 1657 van de kolonie Esseqnebo te ontdoen, die in de laatste jaren volstrekt geen voordeel meer opleverde en de meerderbeid der Staten van Zeeland was, nit onde voorliefde der Zeeuwen voor de W. I. vaart , niet ongeneigd baar over te nemen. Men kon bet dsrarover ecbter niet geheel ééns worden en maakte derbalve gaame gebrnik van bet aanbod der steden Middelborg, Vlissingen en Veere, om die kolonie te besturen en te onderbonden, onder bet patronaat der Staten van Zeeland. In October 1657 kwam die overeenkorast tot stand en op 1 November bad in bet West-Indiscbe bnis (bet gebonw der W. I. Comp.) te Middelbnrg, de eerste vergadering plaats van de Directie der Nieuwe Colonic op Isekepe, die men Nova Zeeladia noemde; deze Directie bestond uit 8 leden n.l. 2 bnrgemeesters V. Middelbnrg, 1 van Vlissingen en 1 van Veere, benevens 4 bewindhebbers der Kamer Zeeland van de W. L Comp. Met grooten ijver begon men de nienwe ondememing op touw te zetten en in verschillende vergaderingen van November 1657 tot Maart 16B8 , werd bepaald , dat er vooreerst 4000 £ vl. of f 24000 zou bijgedragen worden door de 3 steden (Middelburg voor de helft) ; hetgeen echter al spoedig tot 12000 £ vl. moest worden verhoogd en later geheel ontoereikend Week te zijn; tevens werd er geresolveerd, dat om te beginnen 2 schepen zouden worden uitgerust, waarvan één om kolonisten naar Essequebo over te brengen en een ander om slaven in Afrika te gaan balen en die vandaar nc^ar de gereorganiseerde kolonie te voeren. Men was van plan zich, tot meerder voordeel, niet langer tot den vroegeren handel in verf en hont met de Indianen te bepalen, maar ook zelf sniker te gaan planten en daartoe waren vooral negerslaven benoodigd. Om in deze behoefte te voorzien, bood zich al dadelijk zekere David Nassy aan, een ondememend Joodsch koopman, die na het verlies van Brazilie dat land had verlaten met honderden zijner geloofsgenooten , om onder de Nederlandsche vlag godsdienstvrij heid te zoeken.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 71-72 archive.org archive.org
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E. Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 16
[237]
No.32
Conditions for colonists, provisionally adopted by the West India Company
(Zeeland Chamber), October 12, 1656
Draft of notification. To all who shall see this or hear it read, be it known : 

Whereas the directors of the Zeeland Chamber of the West India Company, for many years, by all conceivable means and ways, both by its, tho Chamber's, own means and by contracting with private persons, have tried, not only to increase its trade and commerce from here to the coasts and islands situate under the charter, but also and especially have made it their aim to further the colonization and agriculture of the aforesaid lands, and yet without such success, results, and fruits as they could have hoped,

Therefore, inasmuch as they have found by careful observation and long experience, that not only the islands lying in their district but also the mainland coasts and especially the Wild Coast, extending from tho river Amazon to . . . degrees northward, are of such situation and soil that one can there cultivate, plant, raise, and gather everything which it has been possible to cultivate and gather in the famous regions of Brazil, yet that there are needed, for the greater increase of population and agriculture, not only persons of reasonable means, skill, and experience, but also all others of lesser condition and ability; they are disposed to offer, and do hereby offer, with the knowledge and approval of the States General of the United Netherlands and of the General Chartered West India Company, in order thereby to encourage each and everyone, these following conditions :

Firstly, under the sovereignty of the States General and the authority of the Chartered West India Company everyone shall be at liberty to go from this country, in his own, in hired, or in the Company's ships, to the aforesaid Wild Coast, in order to choose there and take into possession such stretches of land as they shall have need of for their purpose and cultivation, to administer, populate, till, and plant it, on condition that they provide themselves with proper shoulder and side-arms with their appurtenances.

Secondly, when by God's help the population on the aforesaid Wild Coast shall have grown to two hundred families or more, the colonists themselves shall, provisionally and with the approval of the Zeeland Chamber, elect three, five, or seven councilors from their own number, of the most honest, able, and wealthy, born in the seven United Provinces or having lived for ten years under this Government, who shall administer justice according to the law of the province of Zeeland, and shall decide all matters touching their condition and circumstances there, to which end the Zeeland Chamber will provide them with the proper commission from the States General and with authorization and instruction from the General Company, to which they shall be required to take the oath.

Thirdly, every colonist shall possess in fee simple tho land and strand upon whose possessions ho has entered, and shall use it as he shall see fit, having and retaining the free right to catch game, fish, or birds, without paying any tax, tithe, or other poll-taxes for the space of five years, beginning with the year of making their choice and taking possession ; but at the end of the five years the colonists shall be dealt with in all fairness, in any case not more exorbitantly than the inhabitants of the other islands, paying yearly for poll-tax 100 pounds of tobacco --- other commodities, such as sugar, indigo, cotton, and other products, being reckoned an equivalent according to their value--- unless at the time it should be deemed better to pay also tax of the tithes. In case, however, they leave the lands of which they have taken possession, these shall after two years again revert to the company.

Fourthly, if any one of the colonists, through himself, his family, or bis servant, discovers any minerals, crystals, stones, marble, of whatever sort, he shall bo at liberty to take possession thereof, possess them, and use them for bis profit, for the time of five years; and after the five years the possessor shall be required only to pay tithe to the company.

Fifthly, the colonists shall be at liberty to carry on trade, and to transport their products and wares in their own or in the company's ships (being required only to consign them to the place whence they sailed)', free of all dues, as well for merchandise and agricultural implements which they desire to transport thither, as for products which they desire to export from there, only paying tonnage as other Caribbean traders navigating under the rules.

Sixthly, the aforesaid colonists shall also be at liberty to go to the coast of Africa and fetch as many negroes as they shall have need of or may desire to offer for sale, being subject like others to the regulations made therefor or to be made.

Seventhly, the colonists, when any ships of the Company sails from here to the aforesaid coast, or when they find on the islands a ship of the Company destined thither, shall have free passage in that ship (only having to provide themselves with their own food and sustenance), together with their agricultural implements, so far as the ship shall be able conveniently to store these.

Eighthly, in order that everything proceed with complete knowledge, all prospective planters going from here thither, whether in their own ship or, where there is opportunity, in a ship of the Company, shall be required to seek passports from the Zeeland Chamber; or if they journey thither from the islands, they shall upon arriving there give their names to the Commandeur of Essequibo, or his deputy, in order thus to have them registered with the Chamber here.

The Company reserves for itself only the trade and the gathering of the annatto dye, which nobody shall be at liberty to trade in, gather, or transport, on penalty of bis life and of the confiscation of all his goods; and also the interpretation of any obscurities which may occur in these [provisions], and moreover the right to change the mode of government after the space of five years, in case they find that circumstances there demand this, --- granting in the mean time to the colonists and lesser planters the liberty to appoint and maintain at their expense for the service of the Councilors, a sheriff, police officer, and secretary, together with a preacher, schoolmaster, and scripture reader, subject ouly to the approval of the Zeeland Chamber.

This Chamber shall endeavor and shall do its utmost, either by contracting therefor or through other means and opportunities, to order negroes for the aforesaid oast and to send tbem for a reasonable price, to be paid from the products or otherwise, in such way as shall be found best and reciprocally agreed upon.

Thus done and provisionally drafted in
our meeting of October 12, 1656.

Signed,

Thus dono provisionally in our meeting, and thereafter a contract made and signed with Gerret ran Vya*en y both for himself and in the name of his constituents, in pursuance of the resolution taken January 4, 1657. Done at Middelbnrg on the date aforesaid.

Gerret Gerretsex van Viejanne.
(Signed for myself and for my constituents.)

Present::
Joories van Overschelde.
  • Report and Accompanying Papers of the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States "to Investigate and Report Upon the True Divisional Line Between the Republic of Venezuela and British Guiana".: Extracts from archives, von U.S. Government Printing Office, 1897 , Seite 117 archive.org

[238] 3 By "colonists," however, must not be understood tillers of the soil, much less free planters. "The colony of Essequibo," said the Zeeland Chamber itself in 1751, in the memorial resulting from its search through its own records, "from the beginning on, down to the year 1656 was inhabited only by such persona as were employés of the Zeeland Chamber, and who ... at that time were called 'colonists' and were kept there for the carrying on of trade, which soon grew to such proportions that in some years a hundred barrels or more of annatto dye came over at once."---(Nederlandsche Jaerboeken, 1751, p. 1097.)
  • Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. The counter-case of the United States of Venezuela before the tribunal of arbitration to convene at Paris, under the provisions of the treaty between the United States of Venezuela and Her Britannic Majesty signed at Washington, Feb. 2, 1897 (1898), Seite 70 archive.org
[239]
Request of Cornelis van Lodensteyn and others for a grant of twelve
Dutch miles on the coast of Guiana [1657]
To the Directors of the United West India Company, holding their Chamber at Middelbnrg in Zeeland.

We, Cornelia van Lodensteyn, W T illem Roelsius, Johan Evertsen, Johan le Gouche, An ton i Copal, Willem Bastinck, Johan de Dorper, Willem Aleman, Hans Penne, Hubert Hugo, Jacob Warnaerts. Ryckloff van Goens, and Hubert de Lairesse, do make known, that we the petitioners are desirous to navigate the coast of Guiana, situate in America on the Wild Coast, between two and five degrees, and there to colonize twelve [Dutch] miles of coast and as far inland as shall be convenient to the petitioners, to cultivate, to engage in mining, to raise cattle, and to do all things which with God's favor the lands, grounds, mountains, rocks, waters, and skies shall enable them to do, for the glory of His name, and to the profit and advantage of the petitioners, of yourselves, and of the United Netherlands.

And, in order that the petitioners may do so with greatest security for themselves, they petition that you be pleased to grant them the following terms and conditions :
…..
  • Report and Accompanying Papers of the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States "to Investigate and Report Upon the True Divisional Line Between the Republic of Venezuela and British Guiana".: Extracts from archives, von U.S. Government Printing Office, 1897 , Seite 117 archive.org
[240] “Tot directeur of Commandeur der vernieuwde kolonie werd zekere Aert Adriaensz Groenewegel benoemd, die vergezeld zou worden door Comelis Groliat als commies-magazijnineester en ingenieur *) en beiden vertrokken derwaarts op den 2en Febroari 1658 met een tal van Coloniers en beboeften van allerlei soort. Tabrijk waren de aanzoeken van Panlo Jacomo Pinto , Philip de Fuentes en andere nit Brazilie gevlnchte personen „van de Hebreeuwsche of Joodscbe natie" om naar Isekepe te mogen gaan en in 1658 en 1659 zijn op die wijze 4 of 6 schepen met Coloniers derwaarts vertrokken , waarbij vele Joden, zoomede eenige scbepen met slaven. Groenewegel en Goliat deden hun best: de eerste was, naar wij uit de documenten konnen nagaan, meest op de eigenlijke Esseqnebo (fort Kijkoveral) , de laatste aan de Pomeroon , waar hij toen dadelijk aanving met bet opmaken of bouwen (?) van bet fort Nova Zeelandia eenige mijlen boog op de rivier, van betvlek Nieuw Middelburg en van bet huis ter Hooge , welke vestigingen echter waarschijnlijk nimmer gebeel voltooid zijn geworden.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 72-73 archive.org archive.org
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E. Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 17
[241]„In Augustus 1659 werd een predikant, Jobannes TJrselins, naar Nova Zeelandia uitgezonden, docb men was niet gelukkig geweest in de kenze (in 1661 werd bij n. 1. wegens wangedrag ontslagen). De kolonisten zaten intnsscben niet stU, want wij zien in bet register, waaruit wij al de bovenvermelde bijzonderbeden putten **) dat bebalve de gewone bandel in orianeverf en bout reeds op 6 Januari 1661 in Middelburg last werd gegeven, “om eenige suijkeren van Nova Zeelandia te verkoopen." Niet alleen op een paar plantages iu de nabijbeid van Kijkoveral, maar ook op eenige punten van den westelijken oever der Esseqnebo nabij de zee, zoomede aan de Pomeroon en aan de Morocco of Moruca, eene rivier die eenige mijlen westelijker lag , was men suikerriet beginnen te planten , waaruit op de primitieve wijze der Indianen (tusschen 2 houten rollen) met handenarbeid het suikersap werd verkregen *).
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 73-74 archive.org archive.org
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E. Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 17
[242] 1664 wurde die erste Zuckermühle in Brouwersboeck an den Nordufern des Zusammenflusses der beiden Flüsse Cuyuni und Mazaruni. Also in der Nähe von Fort Kijkoveral in Essequibo.
  • Institute Paper, Ausgaben 31-40, University of Oxford. Commonwealth Forestry Institute, 1954 , Seite 36 
[243] Petition eines gewissen Jan Doensen vom 3. Juli 1664 zur Vorbereitung der Errichtung einer Zuckermühle. Diese wurde nicht mehr manuell von Hand, sondern wurde von einem Pferd angetrieben.
  • Report and Accompanying Papers of the Commission Appointed by the President of the United States "to Investigate and Report Upon the True Divisional Line Between the Republic of Venezuela and British Guiana".: Extracts from archives, von U.S. Government Printing Office, 1897 , Seite 132
  • From Plantocracy to Nationalisation: A Profile of Sugar in Guyana, University of Guyana, 1983 - 440 Seiten, M. Shahabuddeen, Seite 11
[244] Second Anglo-Dutch War / Zweiter Englisch-Niederländischen Krieg (1665–1667)

[245] Essequibo wurde 1665 von den Engländern erobert und später von den Franzosen geplündert. In den folgenden Jahren wurden die Engländer jedoch von einer holländischen Expedition aus Berbice von dort wieder vertrieben. Die Kolonie wurde von den Franzosen wohl hauptsächlich deswegen geplündert, weil sie sich zwischenzeitlich in der Hand der Engländer befand. Schließlich waren die Niederlande und Frankreich Verbündete in diesem Krieg. Leider konnten sie das Fort nicht erobern und so verblieb die Kolonie bis zum Eingreifen des Kommandeurs Mathijs Bergenaar aus Berbice im Jahre 1666 in englischer Hand.
  • Die Britischen Colonien in Asien, Westindien und Nordamerika, von Robert Montgomery Martin, übersetzt von Dr. Paul Frisch, 1836, Seite 162
[246] Laut P.M. Netscher warf dieser Überfall der Engländer und Franzosen die Regionen Pomeroon und Moruca für lange Zeit zurück, da sie die Hauptlast der Plünderungen zu tragen hatten. Essequibo kam im Vergleich dagegen relativ glimpflich davon.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 20
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 79-80 archive.org archive.org
[247] “Na het vertrek van Crijnssen was dus Berbice gebleven zoo 1668 als het was, eene bezitting der heeren van Pere, onder de bescherming der Zeeuwsche Kamer van de W. I. Comp. en Essequebo met Pomeroon bleef als kolonie onder bet bewind der 3 steden (Middelburg, Vlissingen en Veere) en onder het patronaat der Staten van Zeeland. Weldra werd echter, ook ten gevolge der ramp van 1666 deze last te zwaar voor de 3 steden en deze besloten in 1669 de kolonie weder geheel aan de Staten van Zeeland terng te geven. Deze wilden haar ook 1669 niet honden, maar droegen hctar bij accoord van 11 April 1670
weder over aan de W. I. Comp. ter Kamer 2eeland , op conditio dat die Kamer jaarlijks in de kolonie Suriname één of twee ladingen negerslaven zou invoeren “of zooveel meer als de verhoopte aanwas der kolonie zal komen te reqnireren" (31) en „dat de handel en scheepvaart op Esseqnebo zoomede het cultiveeren van plantagien aldaar, open en vrij zou zijnvoor alle ingezetenen van Zeeland, mits betalende aan de W. I. Comp. de gewone recognitie naar de grootte van hunne schepen, nitgenomen dat de handel in Orlianeverf alW^n door de Kamer Zeeland gedreven en diensvolgens voor alle andere gesloten zal worden op poene van Confiscatie.”
Dit accoord van overdracht, waarmede de Vergadering der 1670 XIX zich vereenigde en dat bij Res. der Staten-Generaal van 15 October 1670 geapprobeerd werd, handhaafde dus voorloo- pig het monopolie der Zeeuwen op Essequebo 's handel en heeft 80 jaren later, toen de W. I. Comp. dien handel voor alle ingezetenen van den Staat wilde vrij stellen, aanleiding gegeven tot eene eindeloostwistgeschrijf, zoo als wij later zullen zien.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 20
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 79 archive.org archive.org
[248]
[May 28 1670.]
“Hendrick Rol appeared before the Chamber and informed it that he is ready to depart for Essequibo at the order of the Chamber, adding to this that the business in Essequibo and Demerara can be attended to by him at the same time, since they lie only 3 [Dutch] miles apart...”
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seiten 138 + 139 archive.org
[249]
[June 23, 1670.]
The conditions agreed on for the above-mentioned colony having been reported, it was
voted...
... to accept and approve the same after certain slight corrections--- especially on this condition, that from the first article shall be stricken out "Pomeroon," (Pouroma im Original) since the disposition of this does not belong to this Chamber, but to the Committee of Nova Zeelandia. . . .
Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of

[250]
[August 14, 1670.]
“Under this date there is mention of
The freemen who have permission to go to Essequibo, there to erect plantations.”
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 139 archive.org
[251] “Toen de WIC in 1674 door grote financiële problemen haar schulden niet meer kon aflossen, werd het bedrijf ontbonden. Maar vanwege grote vraag naar handel met het westen (voornamelijk handel in slaven), en het feit dat er nog veel koloniën aanwezig waren werd er besloten de Tweede Geoctroyeerde West-Indische compagnie (ook wel Nieuwe West-Indische compagnie genoemd) op te richten in 1675. Deze had hetzelfde handelsgebied als de eerste. Alle schepen, vestingen e.d. werden door het nieuwe bedrijf overgenomen. Het aantal directeuren werd van 19 teruggebracht op 10, het aantal bewindhebbers van 74 op 50.[23] In 1676 gaven plannen van Hendrik Carloff aanleiding tot de tocht van Jacob Binckes naar Tobago en wat volgde staat bekend als de Eerste Slag bij Tobago. Een Tweede slag betekende het einde van de Nederlandse pogingen om van Tobago een Nederlandse kolonie te maken.
De nieuwe WIC beschikte rond 1679 over een actiekapitaal dat iets meer dan 6 miljoen gulden bedroeg, en grotendeels geleverd werd door de Amsterdamse kamer. De bewindhebbers kwamen bijeen in de Voetboogdoelen, evenals de directeuren van de Sociëteit van Suriname."
[252] “Bij de oprichting der Nieuwe W.-I. Comp. in 1675, had deze bepaaldelijk de bedoeling, om zelve het opperbestunr of de souvereiniteit over Essequebo uit te oefenen en de Vergadering der Tienen beschouwde, door het opheffen der Oude Comp., ook bet accoord van 1670, waarbij Esseqnebo als bet ware aan de Kamer Zeeland was afgestaan, van zelve vervallen. Een bewijs biervan zien wij o. a. daarin , dat zij in bare vergaderingen van 10 en 12 Januari 1675 (R. A.) uitvoerig delibereerde over het al dan niet continueeren der vroegere Directenrs en Commandeurs der oude Comp. in bare verschillende bezittingen (ook Essequebo) en dat zij in hare zitting van 3 April 1676 uitdrukkelijk bepaalde „dat indien eenige van hen dezer werelt quamen te overlijden ofte uijt baren dienst ontslagen te worden, omme in plaetse van deselve andere personen te elisgeren ende aan te stellen, sal sijn ende blijven alleenlijck aan dese Vergaderinge." Hieruit blijkt dus ten duidelijkste , dat de Tienen steeds in boogste ressort over zaken van belang wilden blijven beslissen, ook al lieten zij]de gewone bandelsbemoeiingen en het dagelijksch beheer over Essequebo aan de Kamer Zeeland over.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 3
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 93 archive.org archive.org
[253] “Deze vertrok naar zijne bestemming voorzien van eene Commissie in optima forma en eene gedetailleerde Instructie, afgegeven en geteekend door de Bewindhebbers der Kamer Zeeland den Sen September 1678, namens de Staten Greneraal, Zijne Hoogheid den Prins van Oranje en de W.-I. Comp., — met last om aan al zijne onderhebbenden den eed van tronw aan die 3 antoriteiten te doen afleggen*). Abraham Beekman bleef nagenoeg 12 jaren in fanctie en was een bedrijvig voortvarend man , doch aanmatigend en lastig in zaken; hij trachtte veel verbeteringen in te voeren en er bestaan van hem een menigte brieven op het Rijksarchief **). Hij begon al spoedig na aankomst, met de vaart op de Esseqnebo voor elk en een iegelijk open te stellen, hetgeen echter in 1681 van uit Nederland door de Vergadering der X op aandringen der Kamer Zeeland verboden werd en beperkt tot hen die in dienst der W.-I. Comp. waren. Hij wenschte een nieuw fort aan te leggen op bet Ylaggeneiland, gelegen in den mond der Essequebo en bad abreeds een accoord gemaakt met eenige planters, die materialen en werkvolk (slaven) zouden leveren, toen tegenbevel uit Nederland kwam. Zijn secretaris Jacob Nolet werd „om redenen van kwaadspreken en conspiratie" door hem ontslagen en geboeid naar Sariname gezonden. Door deze en meer andere willekenrige bandelingen, berokkende bij zicb weldra bet ongenoegen van de Bewindbebbers in Zeeland die bem dan ook reeds op 24 Augustas 1684 schreven “soo seggen wij dat ons al die manieren van doen seer vreemt vooroomen ende dat wij daeruit klaer konnen bemercken dat UE. daer t' eenemael speeldt de „rolle van Soavereijn" (41).”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 4
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 94-95 archive.org archive.org
[254] “Een ander der door hem geopperde plannen, gaf aanleiding tot een nieawe ondememing der W.-I. Comp. Beekman bad namelijk kort na zijne komst in de kolonie voorgesteld, om ook bandel op de Orinoco te gaan drijven, maar Bewindbebberen vonden zolks terecbt te ver af en te onzeker id de toekomst; daar bij ecbter beweerde, dat op de Essequebo in de nabijbeid van Eijkoveral niet veel vinicbtbaar land meer beschikbaar was voor den aanleg van nieuwe plantages, achtten zij bet beter om aan de Boumerome (Pomeroon) waar zulk goed land was „eene nieuwe colonic als voor desen op te rechten." In de provincie Zeeland, waar de geringe voordeelen en bet spoedig te niet gaan in 1666 van die vestiging aan de Pomeroon (Nova Zeelandia) nog te verscb in bet gebeugen lagen , bestond niet veel opgewektbeid tot eene bemieuwde poging; maar in 1685 wist Jacob Pietersz de Jong, gewezen eigenaar van een der plantages aan de Essequebo, die toen tijdelijk in Amsterdam was, vele invloedrijke kooplieden tot belangstelling voor de zaak te winnen. Zij ijverden zéé voor die ondememing, datde Vergadering van Tienen den 17en October 1685 , (terugkomende op haar in 1681 genomen resolutie) besloot, om de rivieren Tan Essequebo en Pomeroon open te stellen voor een ieder die daarop zou willen handelen of zich met ter woon vestigen; terwijl de Kamer van Amsterdam met die van het Noorderkwartier en die van Stad en Landen „aanboden om de Bourome (Pomeroon) te mogen popnleeren en cultiveeren," De Tienen consenteerden hierin, na eenige tegenwerking en verzet van de Kamer Zeeland en benoemden den 5en April 1686 voomoemden Jakob Pietersz de Jong tot Commandeur over deze hemieuwde kolonie op een tractement van f 50 's maands en eenige emolnmenten , bestaande in een zekere percentsgewijze belooning voor de naar Nederland te zenden soiker *)

De Jong vertrok onmiddellijk weder naar de Esseqnebo, waar de Commandeur A. Beekman hem van soldaten, munitie en andere benoodigdheden voorzag, om zicb behoorlijk aan de Pomeroon in zijn commando te kimnen installeeren. De Jong trachtte dadelijk planters van de Essequebo te lokken en slaven aldaar te koopen , ten behoove van zijne kolonie die aan alles gebrek had , en weldra ontstonden daardoor — en door de beschnldiging van de Jong, dat Beekman handel voor zich zelven dreef , ten prejudice van de Compagnie , — oneenigheden tusschen de beide naburige Commandeurs **). Het voormalige Nova Zeelandia kon zich niet meer herstellen , hoofdzakelijk door gebrek aan werkkrachten en door onachtzaamheid van de Jong, totdat in 1689 op gewelddadige wijze en voor good een einde werd gemaakt aan die afzonderlijke kolonie.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 4
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite ?? archive.org archive.org
[255] De tuijnen soo tot broodt als suijker syn op de 2 Compagniesplantagies ende aen fort seer wel gebrandt, moeten nu schoon gemaeckt en beplant werden met dito slaaven, en sedert 'tleste schip nogh geene gestorven, en alio Compagnies bestialen en effecten, staet alles Godt danck seer wel; alle d'onde negros sgn na hnn onde respective handelplaetsen onder d'Indianen, te weten ses voor de oriane, twee voor de maraen en twee voor letterhont ende vivres, dewelcke door bet gestaadigb besouck van de vrge planters, die nu wel 18 in getale sgn, ende anderen ingesetenen seer schaars werdt. Haer Ed. dienen onder correctie tot dien egnde een magazgn van dranck ende vivres op te richten, omme de luyden voor hun geldt te tracteren, 't sonde Haer Ed. van veel oncostea en mg van veelmoegelyckheytontlasten; diende mede een court opgericht, om de geschillen, disputen ende procesaen tusschen de vrijplanters te slegten, waardoor Compagnies ontsagh bierdoor merckelycken sonde werden gestgft, soodat onder Haer Ed. approbatie de bequaemste persoonen onder de planters wel sal dienen bij provisiet'eligeren, als daertoe om verscheyde voorvallcn sterck aengemaent werdende; de nieuwe planters behelpen hun nogh ter naauwer noodt met vrge Indianen, dewelcke 'tmede begint te verveelen, 'tverlangen is daerom seer groot na 300 á 400 ps. negros; hun bos is gecapt ende gebrandt, hebben nu geene handenomme tselve te bebouwen, moeten evenwel sware oncosten dragen.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 374 – 376 archive.org
  • Venezuela-British Guiana boundary arbitration. The counter-case of the United States of Venezuela before the tribunal of arbitration to convene at Paris, under the provisions of the treaty between the United States of Venezuela and Her Britannic Majesty signed at Washington, Feb. 2, 1897, Seite 173, Fußnote 3 archive.org
[256] Nine Years' War / Pfälzischer Erbfolgekrieg oder auch Neunjähriger Krieg (1688–1697)

[257] “Den 30en April van dat jaar werd de Pomeroon namelijk bezocht door een Franschen kaper die zich aan de Barima ophield en met hulp van eenige Indianen, de kolonisten zoo plotseling overviel, dat de Jong ter nauwemood den tijd had, nagenoeg ongekleed, te ontsnappen, terwijl al wat er zich bevond geplunderd of verbrand werd. In een brief van 6 Juli 1689 gedateerd uit het fort Kijkoveral (waarheen de Jong gevlucht was) , gaf liij kennis van zijn ongeval aan de Kamer v. Amsterdam en de Yergadering van de Tienen, terwijl Abraham Beekman de zaak mededeelde aan de £amer Zeeland, onder kennisgeving
dat men zich over de Essequebo niet ongerust behoefde te maken, daar hij met zijne goede weerbare bezetting en zijn pas met nienwe dikke palissaden voorziene sterke fort, geen aanvallen vreesde.

De Yergadering der Tienen, in kennis gesteld zijnde met de 1689 ramp aan de Pomeroon, besloot in hare zitting van 15 November 1689, om die kolonie op te geven en er slechts 3 man met eene Compagniesvlag achter te laten, terwijl hetgeen er nog aan comps.-eigendommen was overgebleven, naar de Essequebo werd overgebracht , — en hiermede eindigde voor altijd het korte afzonderlijke Commandeurschap over Pomeroon (42).”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 5
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 96-97 archive.org
[258]
No. 72.
From the proceedings of the West India Company (the Ten), November 15, 1689.
Tuesday, November 15, 1689.
Forenoon.
It was further resolved that from the colony of Pomeroon shall be removed whatever has been brought thither on behalf of the Company, both the employees and the slaves and other commodities, there being left there only three men with a flag for the maintenance of
the Company's possession at the aforesaid place, and that the aforesaid employees and commodities be transported to Essequibo in order there to be employed for the service of the Company.
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 190 – 191 archive.org

[259] Eine Musterungsliste (Muster Roll) vom 6. September 1691 erwähnt drei Plantagen der Kompanie in Essequibo (Peolwyck, de Hope, de Fortuyne)
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 192 – 193 archive.org
[260] “De oevers der op dit centrale punt bij elkander vloeiende rivieren de Mazaronni, de Cayouni en de Esseqnebo, waren in de laatste jaren der 17e eeuw reeds bezet met een tal van suikerplantages , waarvan aanvankelijk 3, later 4 aan de W.-I. Comp. toebehoorden (37) en 12 à 15 aan particulieren of vrije planters. Het getal der laatstbedoelden is in de 18e eeuw aanmerkelijk vermeerderd, evenals het aantal Europeescbe inwoners , dat aanvankelijk ter nanwemood een honderdtal bedroeg. Op elke plantage woonde de eigenaar of wel een directeur (toen meesterplanter genoemd) en een of meer opzichters (later blankofficiers) , benevens eenige ambacbtslieden als smid, kniper, timmerlieden enz.; op de Compagnies-plantages was daarenboven nog een chirurgijn. Voor den veldarbeid badden de planters van 20 tot 30 en soms meer werkbare negerslaven, behalve de vronwen en kinderen , benevens nog eenige Indiaansche of z.g. roode slaven voor hniswerk, jacht en vischvangst.”

  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 1
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 90 archive.org
[261] Ciltum (Kiltum = Rum) wird Am 24. Oktober 1701 erwähnt.
Saturday, October 24, 1701.
Extraordinary Session.
The Council having met, with nobody absent, the Commandenr, in addition to the communication made before, once more brought before it the arrival of a certain brigantine in Demerara, named the Greyhound, Captain William Wanton, coming from Rhode Island, laden with fifty- four horses, meat, butter, flour, and other provisions, all of which were useful, necessary, even profitable, for the Company and all the inhabitants of this colony. . . .

with polite request that he be permitted to put in at this river in order to provide himself with his necessaries, at the same time urging that he would like to dispose of the merchandise he had with him, at a reasonable price, in exchange for squared timber (which is to be had here in abundance), rum (ciltum im Original), syrup (hier ist anscheinend Melasse gemeint), or bills of exchange; and, inasmuch as we by the impending war might perhaps be brought into straits for provisions, and as moreover there is already a considerable difficulty, especially as to horses, needed for the newly made [sugar] works of the free inhabitants, and as the Company has not enough to accommodate any of them, and as, moreover, the horses from above are not being any longer brought down as formerly, and this might get still worse in case of war :

[For these reasons] the aforesaid Commandeur requests the Councilors to consider what should be done in this matter; which having by them been duly considered, they have resolved by unanimous vote (notwithstanding the prohibition last sent by our superiors), for special and urgent reasons, and moreover under the continuous pressure of the interested
public, that they agree and consent hereto, the more so because all the lands where we carry on our horse-trade, are under the King of Spain, as we know by experience from the prohibitions we have already met in the trade to Orinoco; furthermore, at his, the Captain's, urgent request, there is placed at his disposal the skipper Jan Bruyn,inm order to pilot
the aforesaid ship into this river and bring it safely before the fort.
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 200 archive.org
[262] War of the Spanish Succession / Spanische Erbfolgekrieg (1701–1714)

[263] In einer weiteren Musterungsliste wird ein gewisser Adriaan de la Ruel von Courtrai erwähnt. Er arbeitete zum Zeitpunkt des Schreibens, dem 27. Juli 1703, auf der Plantage der Kompanie Nieuw Middelburgh als Rum Distiller.
Dies ist der erste schriftliche Beweis für eine aktive Rum Produktion in Essequibo den ich fand. Es ist also sehr wahrscheinlich, dass es auch schon 1701 Rum gab, als Captain William Wanton von Rhode Island an Rum und Melasse im Austausch für Waren interessiert war.
No. 89.
Muster Roll of the Company's Servants in Essequibo, July 27, 1703}

[Hague, Kyksarchief, West India papers, vol 167, cover-title Brieven en Papieren van Isekepe, 1 Apr. 1697-9 Mei 1741, fol. 104b.]

Muster roll of all Employees, both high and Imp, officers, soldiers, and sailors, as well as workmen, at present in the service of the General Chartered West India Company in the Chamber Zeeland, in the Colony Essequibo, under the direction of Governor Samuel Beekman.

At the Company's plantation “Nieuw Middelburgh"
…..
Adriaan de la Ruel, of Courtrai, Rum distiller (Ciltum stooker im Original, Stoker = Heizer)
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 205 + 206 archive.org
[264] Karte von Essequibo von 1706 von Abraham Maas mit ungefähr 32 – 34 Plantagen.

[265] Op den 18en October 1708 namelijk, verschenen 3 Fransche kaperschepen bemrnd met 300 koppen voor de Essequebo, met het doel om de kolonie te nemen of althans te plnnderen , zoo als in dien tijd gebmikelijk was. De anders zoo wel onderrichte Hartsinck, doet het voorkomen alsof de aanval dier kapers afstuitte op de verdediging van het fort; hij zegt n. L ,dat „de Franschen wel is waar 2 Indiaansche dorpjes en eenige plantages vemielden, maar dat zij met hnlp der Indianen door de onzen tot den aftocht werden gedwongen." Ook Dalton volgt dit verhaal bijna woordelijk, doch beiden waren niet goed ingelicbt en nit de bescheiden in het Rijksarchief zien wy . dat die rooftocht van veel emstiger aard is geweest *).

De Franschen begonnen namelijk met een gewapende sloep te zenden naar de kleine post of brandwacht, een paar mijlen van de monding der rivier, in het opvaren links gelegenendie slechts door een korporaal en 3 soldaten bezet was. Alhoewel de Commandenr van Kijkoveral dadelijk eenige manschappen ter versterking zond, werd deze post natnnrlijk dadelijk genomen en de 3 kapers zeilden de prachtige breeder ivier op,hier en daar kleine Indiaansche nederzettingen en ook een paar lager gelegene plantages vernielende. Aan de pnnt gekomen , die gevormd wordt door de Esseqnebo en de Mazarouni, thans Bartica point of the Grove genoemd, vonden zij eenigen wederstand
bij de aldaar gelegen plantage de Vrijheid, die door den eigenaar met zijn slaven verdedigd werd. Na een verlies van 2 dooden en een paar gekwetsten onzerzijds, was de overmachtige vijand spoedig meester van dit pnnt en deed van daaruit strooptocliten, naar al de plantages die binnen zijn bereik waren.

Op het fort Kijkoveral heerschte groote oneenigheid tuschen de voomaamste planters, die beweerden dat de soldaten hadden gebmikt moeten worden om al de verschillende verspreid gelegen plantages te verdedigen en den Commandeur, die met recht volhield dat zijne macht (ongeveer 50 man) daartoe veel te gering was en dat zijn eerste plicht was, om het fort en daardoor de kolonie te behouden. Tot eene bestorming van bet fort schijnen de Franschen niet genegen te zijn geweest, doch zij zonden een officier als parlementair, om eene brandschatting te eischen , en onze Commandeur die de verdere totale vemieling en verlies der Kolonie wenschte te voorkomen, sloot den 25en October eene capitolatie met den Franschen kapitein Antoine Ferry, commandant der 3 kaperschepen, waarbij deze zioh verbond , om af te trekken tegen eene schatting van f 50.000. Deze brandschatting zou betaald worden in negerslaven (berekend a f 300 per stuk) , vleesch en andere provisiSn, benevens 1000 stukken van achten (f 2500) voor hem en zijne officieren. Één derde van dit alles kwam voor rekening van de bqna gemineerde eigenaars der 15 of 16 particuliere plantages , terwijl het 2/3 deel dat door de Compagnie
gedragen moest. worden, met 112 slaven werd af betaald.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 7
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 100-101 archive.org
[266] “Kort nadat van der Heijden bij missive van 1 Januari 1709 uitvoerig verslag van deze ramp aan de Elamer v. Zeelandhad uitgebrachty pakte zich een nieuw onweder boven de kolonie samen. In Februari d. a. v. namelijk zeilden opnieuw 2 Fransche kapers de Essequebo op en voltooiden het vemielingswerk van hmme voorgangers. Zij plunderden en verbrandden de meeste der overgebleven plantages, ook de 4 Compagnies-plantages , namen 500 vaten sniker die gereed lagen en een tal van slaven mede en volgens schrijven van v. d. H. van 9 Maart 1709 *) waren er in de kolonie slechts 2 suikermolenwerken in bruikbaren toestand gebleven.

De Commandeur v. d. Heijden vroeg dadelijk versterking van soldaten , nadere pertinente orders voor bet geval van een heraieuwden aanval en machtiging om 2 nieuwe Compagnies-plantages aan te leggen , terwijl hij inmiddels al de overgebleven Compagnies-slaven aan bet werk stelde om het fort Kijkoveral in voldoenden staat van tegenweer te brengen. Met grooten ijver togen ook de particuliere planters op nieuw aan bet werk, om de geleden schade te berstellen en in 1710 waren er weder 5 molenwerken aan bet malen; terwijl wij nit eene missive van V. d. Heijden , van 14 Mei van dat jaar aan de Kamer Zeeland zien, dat bij binnen weinige dagen voor de Comp. eene retourlading zou inscbepen van 160 vaten suiker, 50 vaten oriane en 800 á 900 stopen maraan-olie (Balsam Copaive). Aan energie ontbrak bet dus niet ! en dit was ook noodig , want
de Compagnie beleefde een ongelukkigen tijd met bare kolonien en leed telkens verliezen op zee, door den oorlog met Frankrijk; wij zien o. a. uit brieven van de Kamer Zeeland in
1711, dat tweemalen actereen een schip met kostbare retourlading uit Essequebo door den vijand was buitgemaakt.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 8
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 101-102 archive.org
[267] “De zetel van het bestnor aan de Essequebo, reeds sedert 1622 op het fort Kijkoveral gevestigd, bleef dAdr tot 1718, in welk jaar, zooals wij later zullen mededeelen, de Comman- deur met zijne ambtenaren bet kleine fort verliet en het vlek Cartabo in de onmiddellijke nabijheid van Kijkoveral aan de uitmonding der Mazaronni ging bewonen*).”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 1
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 89-90 archive.org
[268] “Aan het verzoek om uitzending dier versterkingen werd vooreerst geen gevolg gegeven en de correspondentie tusschen den Commandeur en de Bewindhebbers in Nederland, bleef zich bepalen tot zuivere handelszaken en recriminatien van laatstgenoemden „dat de nitgaven exorbitant en de voordeelen te modiek waren, terwijl men geen groote vooruitgang van de kolonie zag." Eninderdaaddie verzuchting wasnietongegrond, wanneer wij nagaan dat volgens een opgave van de Kamer Zeeland van 1735 toen nog slechts in Essequebo aanwezig waren, in dienst der Comp. , 66 Europeanen en 854 slaven, verdeeld over het fort en 4 of 5 plantages; wanneer wij nu de bevolking der 25 á 30 particuliere plantages er bij rekenen, elk met 2 of 3 Europeanen en gemiddeld een 60-tal slaven, dan komen wij tot eene. totaalbevolking van ongeveer 3000 zielen. Een scherpe tegenstelling met Suriname, waar reeds in 1712 ongeveer 200 plantages met 12000 slaven waren ! en welke getallen sedert op groote schaal waren toegenomen.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 12
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 108 archive.org
[269] “De Commandeur Gelskerke, die het in alles volkomen met zijn bekwamen secretaris ééns was , onderteekende dezen laatsten brief mede en voegde er een warme aanbeveling bij , terwijl de Bewindhebbers , ongewoon aan een zoo belangloozen ijver van een hunner dienaren, als Storm van 's Gravesande in dezen betoonde, na eenige aarzeling het voorstel goedkeurden. Er was evenwel vóór dat men den zetel van het bestuur van Cartabo en Ejjkoveral naar het Vlaggen-eiland kon overbrengen , aldaar meer noodig dan een fort , n. l. een huis voor den secretaris en een voor den predikant , soldatenlogies en ambachts- lieden-woningen , pakhuizen enz. , en om den bouw daarvan te bespoedigen was G-elskerke voor zijn persoon in Januari 1739 aldaar reeds gaan wonen in het huis voor den Commandeur, dat reeds voltooid was. Zijne tegenwoordigheid aldaar bewerkte zóóveel, dat ook de overige woningen in 1740 gereed kwamen om betrokken te worden en Cartabo verlaten werd *).”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 13
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 110 archive.org
[270] “In verband met de verplaatsing van het bestuur naar het fort Zeelandia en ook uithoofde van de uitputting der gronden van de Compagnies-plantages op de Essequebo bij Kijkoveral , was omstreeks 1740 besloten die op te breken, te beginnen met de plantages Poelwijk en Duinenburg; voorts warden nieuwe Compagnies-plantages op Vlaggen-eiland en Varkens-eiland aan- gelegd, waarvan iine wederom Dninenburg zou heeten. Vele particuliere planters volgden dit voorbeeld en verplaatsten hunne plantages naar de meer vruchtbare boorden van de beneden-Essequebo en op de eilanden in de nabijheid van bet nieuwe fort, en in 1741 werd zelfs een gedeelte van bet eiland Wakenaam van de Comp. gekocht door Thomas Wilson , Engelsck predikant op Antigua en nog een anderen Engelschman James Doig, om aldaar 2 suikerplantages aan te leggen"*); terwijl kort daarop nog meer Engelschen zich aldaar vestigden en ook eenige verzoeken aan kolonisten toegestaan werden, om op de kust nabij de Essequebo en aan de Pomeroon , katoen en cacao te gaan aanplanten.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 14
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 112-113 archive.org

[271] War of the Austrian Succession / Österreichische Erbfolgekrieg (1740–1748)
[272] „In 1741 the planters at Essequibo, thinking the low lands near the sea more productive than the upper country over which they had previously settled, began emigrating to the former; and in 1745, the Directors of the Chamber of Zealand gave permission to form plantations on the uninhabited coast of the river Demerara.”
  • History of the British colonies, Martin Montgomery, Vol. 2 (of 5), Possessions in the West Indies, 1834, Seite Chapter 1 Seite 3

[273] Erste Landvergabe an englische Pflanzer durch Herman Gerlserkle im Jahre 1741 (Thomas Wilson und James Doig) auf der Insel Wacquename.
  • British Guiana Boundary: Arbitration with the United States of Venezuela. The Case [and Appendix] on Behalf of the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, Bände 6-7, Printed at the Foreign office, by Harrison and sons, 1898, Seite 192
[274] “Het ware belang der kolonie, — de bevordering van de cultuur der winstgevende stapel-producten , — werd intosschen door Storm van 'a Gravesande evenmin uit het oog verloren en dit was ook het verlangen der Bewindhebbers in Nederland ; want de veelvnldige onderzoekingstochten in het binnenland hadden een goed deel van de winsten der Compagnie verslonden, de indigo-cultuur moest men opgeven en de cacao- en
koffie-productie was zoo gering, dat in 1744 van dit laatste artikel voor de consumtie der kolonisten in Essequebo moest worden ingevoerd uit Berbice. De gronden aan de beneden- Essequebo en aan de kust waren echter zeer geschikt voor suiker en katoen, en de cultuur vooral van eerstgenoemd product nam met den dag toe, hetgeen grootendeels te danken was aan den toevloed van Engelsche planters uit Barbados, Antigua en andere eilanden, waar een dorre bodem was en waar zij hooge lasten te betalen hadden. Onze schrandere Commandeur, die reeds als Secretaris er voor geijverd had om de toelating van vreemdelingen te bevorderen, wist van Bewindhebberen te verkrijgen , dat ook de Engelschen , die zich in de kolonie kwamen vestigen, evenzeer als de Nederlanders, voor
10 jaren vrijdom kregen van hoofd- en recognitie-gelden en in sommige gevallen vergunning voor de vaart met hun eigen schepen. Ten gevolge hiervan vond het voorbeeld van Thomas Wilson en James Doig op het eiland Wakenaam zooveel navolgers, dat er reeds in 1743 zeven Engelsche plantages 1743 waren op de eilanden Wakenaam en Leguaan en aan den oostelijken rivier-oever daar tegenover.

Bewindhebberen ter Vergadering van de Tienen waren hier zeer mede ingenomen en schreven o. a. op 18 April 1743 aan Storm, om hem te „lauderen over zijne welgelukte pogingen, om „vreemde natien te animeeren, zich in de kolonie te komen flVestigen," terwijl zij hem bij missive van 2 October 1744 een hgzondere tevredenheids-betuiging „over zijn ijver en appli- 1744 catie” en een geschenk van 2 okshoofden beste Boode wijn zonden. Wij gelooven echter zeker, dat deze toenemende immigratie van Engelsche planters in Essequebo (en eenige jaren later vooral ook in Bemerary) de kiem is geweest van het latere verlies dier kolonien voor Nederland. Reeds de eerste inbezitneming van Esseqnebo en Demerary doorde Engelschen in 1781 is, zooals wlj hieronder nader zullen mededeelen, te wijten aan het drijven en de onderhandsche medewerking der Engelsche en Engelschgezinde kolonisten , en toen na vele lots- wisselingen de kolonie ten derden male in handen van de Engelschen werd overgeleverd , zijn deze er verder voor goed gebleven.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 15
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 114-115 archive.org

[275]
No. 152.
West India Company (Zeeland Chamber) to* Storm van 7 s Oravesande,
Commandeur in Essequibo, August 24, 1744.

[Hague, Rijkflarchief, West India papers, vol 597, cover-title Brieven over Zee, 4 Feb. 1730-2 Dee. 1749 , p. 1 (of letter), 1. 30-p. 2, 1. 16.]

It surely would be reasonable for the Company to enjoy five per cent on the exports of syrup and rum ; it were even to be wished that we could prohibit one stoup of those articles to be exported anywhere but hither. But, because we fear that the colony cannot yet do without the English and those of Orinoco, on account of the scant navigation from this country to Rio Essequibo, we as yet do not venture upon a prohibitory resolution. We shall therefore provisionally acquiesce in the duty established; at the same time we must say that we think we know of a certainty that many frauds are perpetrated in this matter, and that a deal of sugar also is exported under the name of syrup. We therefore recommend to you that better precautions be taken against this, and that you take care that not so much sugar be sold for making syrup (Melasse) or rum (kiltum im Original).
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seite 303 archive.org
[276] „In 1741 the planters at Essequibo, thinking the low lands near the sea more productive than the upper country over which they had previously settled, began emigrating to the former; and in 1745, the Directors of the Chamber of Zealand gave permission to form plantations on the uninhabited coast of the river Demerara.”
  • History of the British colonies, Martin Montgomery, Vol. 2 (of 5), Possessions in the West Indies, 1834, Seite Chapter 1 Seite 3 
[277] “Bij die gelegenheid, en ook in een vroeger schrijven van 10 Juli deszelfden jaars, vestigde onze Commandenr voor het eerst op officieele wijze de aandacht van Bewindhebberen op het gewicht van Demerary als eene nieuwe kolonie nevens en onder Essequebo ; de gronden waren daar bij uitstek vruchtbaar en geschikt voor het aanplanten van suiker en koffie.

Aan zekeren Andries Pieterse, inwoner van Essequebo, was in 1746 door den Baad van Politic dier kolonie (naar aanleiding eener Resol. der Kamer Zeeland van 18 October 1745) eene acte van vergunning gegeven om eene suikerplantage aan te leggen in de rivier Demerary en dit voorbeeld lokte zoovelen tot navolging uit , dat reeds een half jaar later aldaar gronden waren begeven, voor 18 groote suikerplantages en een tal van kleinere gronden (50). Storm stelde voor, om tot bescherming der nieuwe kolonisten en tot het beslechten hunner gcschillen met de aldaar nog in vrij groot getal wonende Indianen, een post van een onderofficier en 6 & 8 man te vestigen aan den mond dier rivier, als brandwacht; van deze post zon men door een of meer kanonschoten kennis kunnen geven van dreigend gevaar, of van naderende schepen en zou men die schepen kunnen verkennen en visiteeren op dezelfde wijze, als zulks in Essequebo en ook in Berbice door eene brandwacht aan den ingang der rivier geschiedde. Hij gaf in zijne missive een uitvoerig verslag van den toestand der geheele kolonie, doch vroeg op stellige, maar niterst beleefde wijze en onder erkenning van het vele goede, door hem van de Comp. genoten, zijn ontslag „salvis honoribus” daar zijne inkomsten te gering waren (slechts / 500 behalve de emoIumenten), om als Commandenr met zijn gezin zich op voegzame wijze te kleeden en in zijne tafel te voorzien, „indien op den danr hij zijn plicht als een eerlijk man zonder sinistre weegen wilde betragten," — terwijl hij daarenboven veel last had van eenige onmstige lieden in de kolonie, die hem tegenwerkten en belasterden. Zijn plan was om na zijn ontslag voorloopig in de kolonie te blijven , daar hij in zijn 3-jarige Commandenrs- tijd alios had moeten interen, wat hij als Secretaris had overgelegd en dns geen geld genoeg bezat om naar Patria terag te keeren.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 16
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 116-117 archive.org
[278]
P.R.O. 468/67

March 19, 1746.
(Extract)

On the 7th of this month one Ignatius Courthial made an application to the Court for permission to cut a road through the forest in the River Cuyuni1 in order by that road to bring mules and oxen into this Colony overland. It being possible that this may be of great profit and advantage, the permission was granted him on condition that there shall be paid to the Company 3 guilders recognition money for every mule, and 2 guilders for every horse or ox, and in order to prevent any fraud in this matter it is my intention to place the post which lies in Demerara2 (and now unnecessary there on account of the opening of the river) on this road instead, which post, in addition to the trade which it will be able to carry on for the Honourable Company, will be amply provided for out of the recognition money.

I have not yet established any post in Barima because I have not yet been able to find any competent person to my liking to whom to intrust the same, for I think that post might become of great importance.

A. Pieterse having exhibited to me the petition he presented to YY. HH. for permission to lay out a plantation in Demerara3 (which YY. HH. were good enough to grant him) his example is being followed by many others and I hear that several from Surinam and Berbice are also desirous of setting out thither. But since I do not yet with certainty know of more than six who intend to make application in the next Court meeting I have deemed it necessary to make a proviso with them (before granting their petitions) that the Company shall not be holden to keep up any fortification or garrison there before the plantations there are in a position to bear and to contribute the costs necessary for the same.

That river is much better situated for purposes of colonization than Pomeroon, as vessels can get in and out easily and there are fine lands for sugar. I took soundings with my own hands three tides up when I was still Secretary and found that vessels could easily get up
as far as that. It lies only one hour from the mouth of this river so that if I lived two hours lower down I should be nearer to the plantations in Demerara than to those here.

Some measures will however have to be taken to prevent illicit trade with the English who will come there in numbers for timber; wherefore someone will have to live there to look after Your Honours' interests and herein I have the honour to await Your Honours' orders.

-----------------------------
1 In December 1J48 (see p. 240), Storm reported this road as finished. Cf. p. 242, where Courthial himself mentions it.

2 In a list of the West India Company's servants (P.R.O. 466/74) dated 23 May, 1739 the first compiled by Storm, this post or tradingplace of Demerara — Handelplaets D'immerarij — is shown to have had both an outlier, or superintendent, and an assistant. The above is,
however, the first mention of Demerara in the body of Storm's despatches.

3 In Coelesiraboe Creek (see p. 630).
  • Storm van's Gravesande; the rise of British Guiana (1911), Storm van 's Gravesande, Laurens, 1704-1775; Harris, C. Alexander (Charles Alexander), Sir, 1855-1947; De Villiers, John Abraham Jacob, Sir, 1863-1931, London : Printed for the Hakluyt Society, 1911, Seite 217-218 archive.org archive.org
[279] Karte von Storm van's Gravesande mit 110 Plantagen am Essequibo August 1748 (und Liste mit mindestens 37 Namen/Plantagen für Demerara mit Größenangabe der Landvergaben).
[280] Report on the Colony of Essequibo submitted in person by the Commander to the Zeeland Chamber.
Middelburg, June 19, 1750.
To the Noble and Right Honourable Sirs, The Directors of the Zeeland Chamber of the Honourable General Chartered West India Company. Noble and Right Honourable Sirs,

Having arrived in Zeeland by Your Honours' permission and the mercy of the Most High I have considered it to be my duty to give YY. HH. a circumstantial account of the colonies which YY. HH. have done me the honour of placing under my command and of the changes which in my humble opinion, salvo meliori, are highly necessary. The unmerited and manifold favours bestowed upon me on so many occasions by YY. IIU. would render me the most ungrateful of men were I not to do all in my power to further the interests both of the Honble. Co. and of the aforesaid colonies, the condition of which is at present such that far from promising any profit to the Honble. Co. it threatens, if not improved, to tend to naught but loss and injury and even to total ruin.

This and no other reason has moved me to seek Your Honours' permission to come over, in the well grounded hope that YY. HH. will kindly give consideration to what I shall have the honour briefly to submit in this report and, according to Your Honours' wise judgment, take the necessary measures to promote the growth and prosperity of these decadent regions.

In order not to detain YY. HH. with a longer preface I will enter into the matter at once, first giving YY. HH. an account of the state of the Colony and then taking the liberty to suggest some measures for its improvement.

Beginning with the Hon. Co.'s plantations, the consignments of sugar for some years past are a proof that these are in good condition, and, under the Lord's blessing (and without unexpected mortality among the slaves), this should not, according to present appearances, deteriorate. The sugar now growing is excellent and so abundant that it cannot possibly be crushed with the number of slaves we now have, and a great deal of it will have to rot on the fields.

The bread plantation alone has for the last year or two had the misfortune to be unable to deliver enough bread for the rations and coast journeys, the fault being (in my opinion) due only to the negligence of the former manager, P. Berk, since the seasons have been favourable and there has been no shortage of bread anywhere.
..
The position of the private planters is very bad, except in the case of a few ; they are deeply in debt and seem but little likely to get out of it on account of the low price of sugar and for other reasons to be adduced hereafter.

Judging by appearances, all would seem to be going on well ; big crops of sugar in good condition promise large yields if they could be crushed, but since there are not more than nineteen mills in Essequibo and three in Demerara, mostly ill provided with horses, the greater part will have to rot in the field, as often occurs.

In Demerara things are going on very well considering the small number of inhabitants, and the probability of continued good fortune under the blessing of the Most High increases daily. Sugar turns out beyond expectation both in growth and quality, and coffee and cocoa have succeeded remarkably well --- far beyond any ever seen in Essequibo ; upon J. M. Frensel's plantation there are at present shrubs of one and a half and two years' growth laden with fruit from top to bottom, four years being generally required for this. I think it will be the same with the cultivation of rice, cotton or tobacco, if it be undertaken.
...
  • Storm van's Gravesande - The rise of British Guiana, compiled from his dispatches by C.R. Harris ... and J.A.J. de Villiers..., 1911, Seite 252 – 276 archive.org
[281] Laut Netscher war der innenpolitische Kurs der zeeländischen Kammer den Handel nur Mitglieder derselben zu beschränken der Grund warum Essequebo nicht wirklich vor ankam. Aufgrund dieser Beschränkung schafften es nur wenige Schiffe zur Kolonie um auch dort die Waren zur Niederländischen Republik zu bringen. Aufgrund dieses Engpasses fanden viele Beschwerdebriefe der Pflanzer ihren Weg zur Republik und schließlich auch zum Rat der X der W.I.C.. Der Rat sah den deutlichen Unterschied der Entwicklung vor allem an der Kolonie Berbice, welche seit 1732 für jeden privaten Händler offen stand und beschlossen dies in einer Sitzung am 11. August 1750 zu ändern. Den Pflanzern sollte es gestattet sein ihre Waren an andere Inseln zu verkaufen und es sollte allen privaten Händlern der gesamten W.I.C. gestattet sein Handel mit der Kolonie treiben zu dürfen. Natürlich blieb der Protest der zeeländischen Kammer nicht aus, die ihre Interessen in Essequibo in Gefahr sah. (Zu viel Text um das anzuhängen!)
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 19
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 120-125 archive.org
[282]
P.R.O. 469/37 
August 4, 1752. 
(Extracts) 

Things are going on very well in Demerara and there is every probability that the Colony will make rapid progress and become populous, for even since my return several plots have been allotted and some mills (of which there has hitherto been a great dearth) are on the point of being erected --- two for Mr Gedney Clarke of Barbados, one for Mr Markoe, of St Eustatius (who, with some other planters of those places and Saba\ are coming to settle there), one for Engel Lonke and one for Mr van Rode. This will bring a good deal of assistance to those who are without means.
Since my return I have kept a watchful eye upon the frauds practised by the English syrup dealers and have caught a man named Newton, whose barque I caused to be unexpectedly searched by the Assistant and the warehouse-master ; they found 40 casks of molasses more than appeared on his manifest. For this I made him pay double duty to the Honble. Co. and a fine besides, and have given notice that in future the punishment will be confiscation of barque and cargo. It seems as if the English cannot refrain from cheating wherefore the appointment of a searcher or assayer is very necessary, as I already had the honour to submit to YY. HH.
  • Storm van's Gravesande - The rise of British Guiana, compiled from his dispatches by C.R. Harris ... and J.A.J. de Villiers..., 1911, Seite 281 – 284 archive.org
[283] Der innenpolitische Disput verschob sich, man mag es fast kaum glauben, bis ins Jahr 1770. Schließlich entschied der Statthalter der niederländischen Republik in einem Schiedsspruch, dass die zeeländische Kammer nicht über das alleinige Handelsmonopol der Kolonie Essequibo verfügen sollte. Aber es wurden der Kammer einige Handelsprivilegien gewährt. Es war den anderen Kammern der W.I.C. auch erst gestattet mit der Kolonie Handel zu treiben, bis das 16. Schiff mit Waren von der zeeländischen Kammer die Kolonie Essequibo erreichte. Dies galt für jedes Jahr. Erst dann wurde den anderen Kammern das Handeln gestattet. (Zu viel Text um das anzuhängen!)
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 6 Seite 21
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 125-126 archive.org
[284] „Omstreeks 1770 telde men in de rivier van Esseqnebo en hare eilanden 60 plantages (meest suiker), op de zeeknst 12 á 14 katoenplantages en in Demerary was het getal der, meest alien in bewerking zijnde sniker- en koffieplantages , tot 130 gestegen (voor ongeveer Vs aan Engelschen behoorende) (53).“
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 7 Seite 2
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 129-130 archive.org
[285] Doch der Konflikt war damit noch nicht beigelegt. Er schwelte weiter und wurde wieder zu einem Brand, als der Rat der X im Jahre 1772 direkt in die Verwaltung der Kolonie eingriff um zwei Ämter von einander zu trennen. Darüber empörte sich die zeeländische Kammer, die es als ihr Recht ansah, alleine über die Angelegenheiten in Essequibo zu bestimmen, da nur sie kompetent genug hierfür sei. Nun platzte dem Rat der Kragen und er beschloss den Streit ein für alle mal zu beenden. Anfang des Jahres 1773 wurde die zeeländische Kammer über eine Resolution vom Rat der X informiert, dass der Rat durchaus kompetent genug sei, da er mit der zentralen und generellen Verwaltung der W.I.C. beauftragt sei. Weiter wurde angeführt, dass die zeeländische Kammer nicht mehr Recht in Fragen der Verwaltung der Kolonien hatte als irgendeine andere Kammer innerhalb der W.I.C.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 7 Seite 8 + 9
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 139-140 archive.org
[286] “De Vergadering der X wenscbte thans met kracht de reorganisatie van Esseqnebo en Demerary door te zetten en laatstgenoemde veelbelovende en vooruitstrevende kolonie los te maken van het meer stationnair blijvende Esseqnebo (het kind was de moeder ontwassen!). Zij bracht dus in hare zitting van 22 Maart 1773 nieuwe concept-Instmctien ter tafel voor den Directeur-Generaal van Essequebo en den Commandeur van Demerary. Beide deze instmctien waren volkomen gelijklnidend : in ieder der kolonien zon het hoofd der regeering als president worden ter zijde gestaan door eenRaad van Politie en Jnstitie (één college) waarin als leden zitting zonden nemen, de commandant der troepen (kapitein-lnitenant of kapitein), de fiscaal. de vendumeester en 4 der “voomaamste , kundigste en vroomste ingezetenen der gereformeerde Religie"; wanneer door dit college rechtszaken behandeld werden, nam de fiscaal daarin geen zitting, maar fongeerde alsdan in zijne betrekking van openbaar aanklager.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 7 Seite 9
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 141-142 archive.org
[287] American Revolutionary War / Amerikanischer Unabhängigkeitskrieg (1775–1783)

[288] Fourth Anglo-Dutch war / Vierter Englisch-Niederländischen Krieg (1780–1784)

[289] „In 1771* the British fleet under Sir George Rodney took possession of all Dutch West India colonies. Such had been the want of shipping that the quantity of produce accumulated in Demerara and Essequebo was so great that these colonies were considered the richest prizes. At the peace of 1783 the whole of these colonies were restored to Holland, when they were almost immediately after taken possession of by the French, who built forts on both shores of the river Demerara at its mouth, and compelled the planters to furnish Negro-labour.”
* da müsste eigentlich 1781 stehen
  • A Description of British Guiana, Geographical and Statistical: Exhibiting its resources and capabilites…, Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, 1840, Seite 85 
[290] „Soon afterwards war was declared against the states of Holland, and instructions were sent out to Rodney to attack their possessions in the West Indies. The Dutch island of St. Eustatius surrendered, without a shot having been fired, February 3, 1781; and in the course of the spring, the Dutch colonies of Demerara, Essequibi and Berbice were taken.“
  • The English Cyclopædia: A New Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, Band 5, herausgegeben von Charles Knight, 1857, Seite 128 
[291] George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney (13 February 1718 – 24 May 1792)

[292] Kommandeur Schulyenberg kapitulierte am 24 Februar. (Demerara)
„Den 24en Februari 1781 gaf van Schuylenburg , na raadpleging met zijne Raden, de kolonie Demerary aan de Engelschen over en den 26en schreef hij een brief aan den Grouverneur van Berbiee (op het R. A. aanwezig, onder de Brieven en papieren van Berbiee 1780 — 1784), waarin hij dezen een verhaal doet van de fatale omstandigheid waarin Demerary zich bevindt" en hem waarschnwt van op zijn hoede te zijn.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 265 archive.org archive.org
[293] Kommandeur Trotz kapitulierte am 8. März (Essequibo)
“Die belanglooze goedheid van Cnnninghame was echtereen onbeduidend voorwendsel, want niet alleen werd Demerary den 24en Febr. door de Engelschen genomen en bezet , maar eenige dagen later werd een der kaperschepen met een Engelsch zeeoificier als parlementair naar Essequebo gezonden, omookover de overgave dier kolonie met den Directeur-Greneraal Trotz te onderhandelen. Den 8en Maart werd ook met hem eene
capitnlatie onderteekend , daar h\j evenmin als de majoor Severijn, commandant der troepen op het fort Zeelandia, kans zag om met de 2 officieren en 77 soldaten der bezetting, die vervallen versterking tegen de Engelsche vloot te verdedigen.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 266 archive.org archive.org
[294] Im März kapitulierte auch Gouverneur Koppiers. (Berbice)
“Ook aan Berbice was hetzelfde lot beschoren. Wei had de Gouvemeor Koppiers in de eerste dagen van Maart de hierboven vermelde waarschuwing ontvangen van Schuylenburg, omtrent hetgeen er in Demerary geschied was en had hij de noodige maatregelen voorgeschreven , om de op 7 of 8 kleine posten door de kolonie verspreide soldaten op den post St. Andries en op het fort Nassau bijeen te brengen, maar vóór dat die orders behoorlijk uitgevoerd waren , werd men den 6en Maart overvallen door 2 Engelsche kapers. Deze maakten zich zonder moeite meester van St. Andries, dat z\j verbrandden, en zeilden op tot fort Nassau, waar zij Koppiers tot capitnleeren noodzaakten, daar de schippers der aldaar liggende koopvaardijschepen weigerden om lets tot verdediging mede te werken.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 265 archive.org archive.org
[295] Am 30. Januar erscheint de Kersaint mit sieben Kriegsschiffen. Am 1. Februar kapitulierte Demerara, Essequibo folgte einige Tage später und Berbice kapitulierte am 15. Februar. Alle drei Kolonien waren nun in französischer Hand
“Den 30en Januari 1782 kwam n.l. de Kersaint met zijn eskader van 7 oorlogsschepen voor Demerary, liet eene landing door zijne soldaten doen en zeilde zelf de rivier in. Van emstig verzet was geen sprake en reeds den len Pebruari capitnleerden de Luitenant-Gouvemeur Kingston en de commodore Tahonrdin die daar met 4 Engelsche oorlogsscheperi lag; terwijl de Baron de Lucius, met 60 man door den Franschen admiraal naar Essequebo afgezonden, ook van die kolonie bezit nam. Berbice werd eveneens eenige dagen daarna opgeeischt en den 15en Febmari waren de drie kolonien op dezelfde wijze in Fransche handen overgegaan, als zij een jaar te voren Engelsch waren geworden: zonder slag of stoot!”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 268 archive.org archive.org
[296] Armand de Kersaint (29 July 1742—4 December 1793)

[297] The Capture of Demerara and Essequibo (1782)

[298] In Demerary was aan den oostelijken koek van de mending der rivier, op de plaats van de onde brandwacht door de Franscken een fort „le Dauphin" gebonwd en vlak daartegenover op den westelijken koek van de mending eene battery „la Reine" terwijl naast het fort le Dauphin een soort van stad of dubbele rij van houten huizen was verrezen, door de Franschen „la nouvelle ville" of ook wel “Longchamps" genoemd *). Deze nieuwe stad werd na het vertrek der Franschen „Stabroek" geheeten (III) en het fort le Dauphin naar des Stadhouders oudsten zoon (later Koning Willem I), verdoopt in fort “Willem Frederik," onder welken naam het nog bestaat. De oude forteres op Fort-eiland in de Essequebo was in geheel onbruikbaren toestand gebleven.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 270-71 archive.org archive.org Karte von 1783 (von einem Franzosen)
[299] “Bij den vrede van Parijs in 1783 die zeer ongunstig voor Engeland was, werden de door Frankrijk in de West- Indie veroverde kolonien op de meest loyale wijze weder aan de vToegere rechtmatige eigenaars teruggegeven en in 1784 werden Demerary, Essequebo en Berbice door de Franschen verlaten, zonder dat zij daarvan eenig voordeel hadden getrokken.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 10 Seite 4 & 5
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 268 archive.org archive.org
[300] Peace of Paris (1783) / Frieden von Paris (1783)

[301] “Voorts werden in Essequebo en Demerary, onder den Directeur-Greneraal Lespinasse, vele administratieve regelingen tot stand gebracht, een reglement tot bescherming der slaven en nieuwe bepalingen op het stuk der belastingen ingevoerd, daar de kolonisten zeer begonnen te klagen over de nog steeds bestaande heffing der dubbele hoofdgelden. Over een en ander werd druk gecorrespondeerd en door de Staten-Greneraal werd eindelijk, in 1788, op voorstel van de Vergadering der Tienen een comity benoemd. dat een plan ontwierp tot geheele reorganisatie van beide kolonien. Toen H. Hoog Mog. zich daarmede vereenigd hadden , werden de Heeren W. A. van Sirtema Baron van Grovestins en S. Boeij, in het begin van 1789, als Commissarissen naar Essequebo gezonden, ten einde de nieuwe regeling in te voeren, waarbij bepaald werd dat Essequebo en Demerary voortaan slechts ééne kolonie zouden uitmaken, onder den naam van Demerary en Essequebo, onder een hoofd met den titel van Gouvemeur en met één gezamenlijk Hof van PoUtie en Crimineele justitie, gevestigd te Stabroek. De titer van Directeur-Generaal werd daarbij afgeschaft en in Essequebo bleef een Commandeur, die echter geheel onderge- schikt was aan den in de hoofdplaats resideerenden Grouverneur. Ook behield Essequebo zijn eigen Raad van Justitie voor kleine zaken , onder presidium van den Commandeur. De beide Commissarissen keerden na het volbrengen hunner commissie, evenals de aftredende Directeur-Greneraal Lespinasse, in Augustus 1789 naar Nederland terug en de Commandeur van Essequebo , Albertus Backer, werd ad interim met het bestuur der vereenigde kolonien belast tot dater eenGouyerneur benoemd zon zijin.”
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 10 Seite 6
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 271-272 archive.org archive.org

[302] 1791 lief die Charter der zweiten niederländischen Westindien Kompanie aus. Aufgrund der zahlreichen Verluste, und unter anderem auch wegen den Folgen des Krieges und der erneuten Besetzung der Kolonie in Guiana von 1781 - 1784, beschloss man die Charter der D.W.I.C. nicht zu verlängern. Trotz massiver finanzieller Unterstützung der Republik der Sieben Vereinigten Provinzen von Holland im Jahre 1784 war die D.W.I.C. nicht mehr solvent und so endete am 31. Dezember 1791 ihre Existenz. Die Kolonien wurden am 1. Januar 1792 direkt dem Stadthalter der Republik unterstellt. Damit wurden diese von den Fesseln und Beschränkungen der niederländischen Westindien Kompanie befreit.
(Zu viel Text.)
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 10 Seite 6 – 7
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 272-274 archive.org archive.org
[303] Im Jahre 1793 erklärte Frankreich der alten niederländische Republik den Krieg. Schließlich wurde diese von französischen Truppen 1794 - 1795 erobert. Am 19. Januar 1795 wurde schließlich der Nachfolgestaat, die Batavische Republik, ausgerufen. Diese befand sich nun in einem Bündnis mit Frankreich. Unverzüglich erklärte England der batavischen Republik den Krieg. Wieder zogen dunkle Gewitterwolken über die niederländischen Kolonien. Am 20. April 1796 erreichte eine englische Flotte die Küste von Demerara. Bereits zwei Tage später, am 22. April, kapitulierte die Kolonie Demerara und Essequibo und wurde von den Engländern in Besitz genommen. Von 1796 bis 1802 verblieben die Kolonien im Besitz Englands. Am 2. Mai ergab sich auch die Kolonie Berbice.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 10 Seite 11
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 280-281 archive.org archive.org
  • History of the Wars Occasioned by the French Revolution: From the commencement of hostilities in 1792, to the end of the year 1816, Band 1, von C. H. Gifford, 1817, Kapitel 8, Seite 111

[304] „In 1796 the Dutch colonies were all taken possession of by the expidition of General White; restored at the peace of Amiens. Again taken possession of by a force under General Greenfield, in 1803. Finally, Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice were ceded to us in 1814. and have since remained in our possession.“
  • The United Service Jounal and Naval and Military Magazine, 1841 Part III, Arthur William Alsager Pollock, Seite 205

[305] “In 1781, the colonies on the Essequibo and Demerara were placed under the protection of Great Britain by a squadron of Admiral Rodney's fleet; but in 1783 the French took temporary possession of the whole Dutch settlements, which, in 1796, surrendered to the British forces under the orders of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, and commanded by Major General White. These settlements were, however, restored to the Dutch by the treaty of Amiens, in 1802, but again taken in possession of by England on the breaking out of war in 1803; since which period they have belonged to Great Britain.”
  • History of the British colonies, Martin Montgomery, Vol. 2 (of 5), Possessions in the West Indies, 1834, Chapter 1 Seite 4
[306] Sir Ralph Abercombie

[307] Anglo-French War (1793–1802) during the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802.

[308] Im Frieden zu Amiens im Jahre 1802 zwischen England und dem napoleonischem Frankreich, Spanien und der batavischen Republik übergaben die Engländer die Kolonien Essequibo, Demerara und Berbice wieder den Niederländern.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 10 Seite 12
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 282 archive.org archive.org
[309] Friede von Amiens / Treaty of Amiens (1802)

[310] Koalitionskriege (1792 – 1815) (Frankreich und Napoleon). England erklärt Frankreich am 18. Mai 1803 wieder den Krieg.

[311] "The outbreak of war saw, as usual, almost immediate extension of the over-sea possessions of Great-Britain. On June 21st, 1803, Commodore Samuel Hood (2), in the Centaur, 74, Captain Bendall Eobert Littlehales, with the Courageux, 74, Captain Benjamin Hallowell, and several smaller vessels, carrying troops under Lieut. - General Grinfield, anchored in Choc Bay, St. Lucia, at 11 a.m. Before 5 p.m. the troops were disembarked under the direction of Captain Hallowell ; half, an hour later the French outposts were driven in and the town of Castries was taken ; and at 4 a.m. on the 22nd the fortress of Morne Fortunee, which had refused overnight to surrender, was stormed and carried, with a loss to the assailants of twenty killed and one hundred and ten wounded.1 St. Lucia having been thus easily reduced, the Centaur, with some small craft and troops, sailed on Jmie 25th for Tobago, and on the 31st arrived off the island. The troops were instantly put ashore without loss, and by 4.30 a.m. on the following day General Berthier, the commandant, capitulated.2 Between that time and the end of September the Dutch colonies of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice were also captured. No lives were lost in acquiring them, and at Demerara the Batavian corvette Hippomenes, 14, was taken.3"
  • The royal navy : a history from the earliest times to the present (1897), Clowes, W. Laird (William Laird), Sir, 1856-1905; Markham, Clements R. (Clements Robert), Sir, 1830-1916; Mahan, A. T. (Alfred Thayer), 1840-1914; Wilson, Herbert Wrigley, 1866-1940; Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919; Laughton, L. G. Carr (Leonard George Carr), 1871-????, London : S. Low, Marston and company, limited, Seite 55 – 56 archive.org archive.org
[312] Sir Samuel Hood, 1st Baronet (1762 - 1814)

[313] HMS Centaur (1797) - Sir Samuel Hood's flagship

[314] „On the recommencement of hostilities, in 1803, Demerara. and Essequibo surrendered on the 19th September, and Berbice on the 26th September, to the British forces, under General Greenfield and Commodore Sir Samuel Hood; since which time it remained in British possession, and was ultimately ceded to Great Britain by an additional article to a Convention between that Power and the United Netherlands signed at London upon the 13th August, 1814.”
  • British Guiana Boundary: Arbitration with the United States of Venezuela. The Case [and Appendix] on Behalf of the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, Bände 6-7, Great Britain, Printed at the Foreign office, by Harrison and sons, 1898, Seite 35 
[315] Durch den British-Niederländischen Vertrag (oder auch Londonder Konvention genannt) im Jahre 1814 werden den Engländern die Kolonien Essequebo, Demerara und Berbice dauerhaft zugesprochen.
  • Statistics of the Colonies of the British Empire in the West Indies, North America, Asia, Austral-Asia, Africa and Europe, From the Official Records of the Colonial Office, von Robert Montgomery Martin, 1839, Seite 118
[316]Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1814 / Britisch-Niederländische Vertrag von 1814

[317] 1627 gab die holländische Regierung eine Konzession zur Entwicklung einer Kolonie in Berbice an das Haus Van Pere.
  • Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism, James Stuart Olson,Robert Shadle, 1991, Seite 53, 
  • Unprofitable Servants: Crown Slaves in Berbice, Guyana, 1803-1831, Alvin O. Thompson, 2002, Seite 22,
  • Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände, Band 7, 1852, Seite 299 
[318]
No.16
From the contract of the West India Company (Zeeland Chamber) with
the patroon Abraham van Pere, April 22, 1627.
Conditions and articles upon which the Directors of the West India Company in the Zeeland Chamber hare accorded and granted to Abraham van Peres, that he carry men to the number of 40, and 20 youths --- in all, 60 individuals -- as settlers, over to the coast of the mainland (called the Wild Coast) of West India, in the river Berbice, situate at the latitude of 6J degrees north.
11.
The aforesaid colonists shall be at liberty to build a fort in the aforesaid river, at such convenient place as they shall think lit, to carry on their trade with the natives of the land, to fell forests, sow, plant, seek minerals, and, in general, to do all other things which they shall judge good and profitable for their colony; also to explore other neighboring rivers and transfer themselves thither if they should think to find better profit there.

12.
Bnt they shall not be at liberty to come into the river Essequibo, nor into any other river where the Company, whether of this or of other Chambers, has its colonists or folk, whether many or few in number.
….
  • Report and accompanying papers of the Commission appointed by the President of the United States : "to investigate and report upon the true divisional line between the republic of Venezuela and British Guiana." (1896), Seiten 46 + 47 archive.org
[319] Am 12. Juli 1627 unterschreibt Abraham Van Pere einen Vertrag zur Kolonisierung des Flusses Berbice. Nachdem er alle Vorbereitungen getroffen hatte verließ er, nach ungünstigen Wetters, erst am 24. September Europa Richtung Berbice.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 7-8
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 57-59 archive.org archive.org
[320] Die Bedingungen des Vertrages wurden im laufe der Zeit verändert und angepasst. Die erste Änderung erfolgt schon am 8. März 1628, danach erst wieder 1632. Am 18. Juni werden Abraham Van Pere Junior und Peter van Rhee mit in den Vertrag einbezogen. Diese letzte Änderung wurde noch einmal am 20. Mai 1660 geändert und bleib bis 1678 Inkraft. Doch dazu später mehr.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 4 Seite 9
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 59-60 archive.org archive.org
[321] Die zweite DWIC beanspruchte mit ihrer Gründung neben Essequibi auch die Kolonie Berbice. Das Haus Van Pere allerdings pochte auf die bereits angesprochenen geltenden Verträge, die zuletzte 1660 geändert wurden. Der Rat der DWIC pochte allerdings darauf, dass alle Verträge mit der ersten DWIC außer Kraft getreten sind, als diese aufgelöst wurde. Der Streit wurde erst im Jahre 1678 beigelegt. Eine neue Resolution trat am 14. September Inkraft und Bestätigte das Haus Van Pere im Besitz der Kolonie.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 8 Seite 1
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 152-153 archive.org archive.org
[322] Nach einen erfolglosen Angriff auf Surinam überfielen einige französische Freibeuter unter der Schwadron des französischen Admiral du Casse die Kolonie Berbice im Jahre 1689. Nachdem sie einige Plantagen niedergebrannt hatten sah sich der damalige Kommandeur der Kolonie zu einer Zahlung von 20.000 Gulden gezwungen, um weiteren Schaden von der Kolonie abzuhalten. Die Zahlung konnte allerdings auf 6.000 Gulden und einige Fässer Zucker heruntergedrückt werden. Möglich machte dies ein Gefangenenaustausch. Dem Kommandeur der Kolonie Surinam van Scharphuysen gelang es bei dem erfolglosen Angriff mehrere der Freibeuter gefangen zu nehmen.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 8 Seite 3
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 154-155 archive.org archive.org
[323] Eine französische Flotte unter Admiral Cassard wurde 1712 ausgesandt um die Kolonien Hollands anzugreifen. Admiral Cassard schaffte es Surinam zu erobern und der Kolonie die gewaltige Summe von 622.800 Gulden abzupressen. Eine kleine Einheit aus drei Schiffen und 600 Männer unter dem Kommando des Barons de Mouans wurde zur Nachbarkolonie Berbice entsannt. Am 8 November 1712 erreichten sie den Fluss Berbice. Nach kurzen und erfolglosen Verhandlungen bombardierten die Franzosen das Fort Nassau vom Abend des 11. November bis einschließlich den 14. November. Am 15. und 16. November wurde schließlich über eine Kapitulation der Kolonie neu verhandelt. Man einigte sich auf 300.000 Gulden, wovon 118.024 Gulden in Form von Sklaven und Waren gezahlt wurden und 181.976 Gulden in Form eines Schuldscheins, gezeichnet vom Kommandeur de Watermann. Am 8. Dezember verließen die Franzosen die ausgeplünderte Kolonie.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 7 Seite 4
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 155-158 archive.org archive.org
[324] 1712 eroberten die Franzosen Berbice. Nach Zahlung einer bestimmten Summe wurde es allerdings wieder an Holland abgetreten (1714).
  • Die Britischen Colonien in Asien, Westindien und Nordamerika, von Robert Montgomery Martin, übersetzt von Dr. Paul Frisch, 1836, Seite 162
[325] Lösegelder in Florins von 1712 (300.000) und 1690 (20.000).
  • A Voyage to the Demerary: Containing a Statistical Account of the .., Henry Bolingbroke, 1813 Seite 110
  • Encyclopaedia metropolitana: or Universal dictionary of knowledge ..., Band 15, Edward Smedley,Hugh James Rose,Henry John Rose, 1845, Seite 466
[326] „Baron de Morrans, who led the pirate forces, obtained the bills.“ (1712)
  • THE MONTHLY REVIEW, FROM JANUARY TO APRIL INCLUSIVE 1834, Seite 197
[327] „In 1712 a French flotilla under Admiral de Casse attacked the settlement, and exacted a contribution of 300,000 florins, ....“
  • A Description of British Guiana, Geographical and Statistical, Exhibiting …, Sir Robert Schomburg 2013 (Original von 1840),
[328] Die Meister von van Pere, Johan und Cornelius van Pere, weigerten sich den Schuldschein der Franzosen zu begleichen. Sodann wanderte Berbice am 13 September 1713 in die Hände einer französischen Gesellschaft in Marseille. Diese allerdings hatte keinerlei Interesse an der Kolonie und versuchte diese an Holländische Händler zu verkaufen. Die Händler Nicolas und Hendrik van Hoorn, Arnold Dix und Pieter Schuurmann waren bereit die Kolonie für die Summe von 108.000 Gulden zu erwerben. Allerdings besaß die Niederländische Westindienkompanie das Monopol für Sklaven aus Afrika. Nachdem sich die Händler mit der niederländische Westindienkompanie auf eine Versorgung von Sklaven geeinigt hatte, die Franzosen hatten die Besten als Lösegeldersatz fortgeschafft, wurde die Kolonie am 28. November 1714 notariell an die neuen Eigentümer übergeben.
Die niederländische Westindienkompanie kam allerdings ihrem Versprechen nicht nach, unter anderem weil sie zu viele Kolonien zu beliefern hatte, und so blieben die Sklavenlieferungen aus. Dieser Engpass brachte die Kolonie an den Rand des Ruins. Die neuen Eigentümer beschlossen im Jahre 1720 sich frisches Kapital von ihren Landsleuten zu besorgen und gründeten schließlich eine Gesellschaft (oder auch Sozietät). Diese verfügte über 1600 Anteile zu je 2000 Gulden. Nach einigen finanziellen Schwierigkeiten erhielten sieben Direktoren die Aufsicht über die Gesellschaft, mit Sitz in Amsterdam, und tagten das erste Mal am 4. Oktober 1720.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 8 Seite 8
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 158-159 archive.org archive.org
[329] Nach einigen fehlgeschlagenen Expeditionen ins Inland konzentrierte sich die Aufmerksamkeit der Direktoren im Jahre 1723 auf die Entwicklung der Kolonie selbst und binnen kurzer Zeit wurden 8 neue Plantagen gegründet. Die niederländische Westindienkompanie blieb allerdings unzuverlässig was den Nachschub an Sklaven aus Afrika anbelangt und so waren nur wenige Sklaven auf diesen Plantagen im Einsatz.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 8 Seite 9
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 165-166 archive.org
[330] Im Jahre 1732 erlangte die Sozietät ein großes Stück Unabhängigkeit von der W.I.C.. Anstatt einer bestimmten Summe pro Schiff musste nun nur noch eine pauschale jährliche Gebühr an die Niederländische Westindien Kompanie bezahlt werden. Diese besaß schließlich noch immer das Monopol für den Handel mit Sklaven in den niederländischen Kolonien, von denen auch die Kolonie Berbice abhängig war. Außerdem öffneten sie die Kolonie für jedem Niederländer. Damit besaß Berbice nicht den hemmenden Engpass, der Essequibo für lange Zeit fesselte, weil die zeeländische Kammer zu sehr auf ihre eigenen Interessen bedacht war und somit einem florierenden Wachstum sehr lange im Wege stand. Lediglich die Seefahrt war weiter eingeschränkt. Es war den handelnden Schiffen nur gestattet von der Republik direkt nach Berbice und wieder zurück zu segeln. Es durfte an keinen anderen Kolonien der W.I.C. oder anderen Nationen halt gemacht werden.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 1 - 2
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 168-170 archive.org archive.org
[331] 1733 besaß die Gesellschaft oder Sozietät 12 eigene Plantagen. De Dageraad, de Goede Hoop, de Berg (später Johanna), West-Souburg, Vlissingen, Cornelia Jacoba, de Peereboom, de Markjeij, Hardenbroek, East-Sourburg und Savonette. Neun hiervon waren Zuckerrohr-Plantagen. Auf den anderen drei Plantagen wurde Kaffee, Kakao und Baumwolle kultiviert.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 4
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 173-174 archive.org archive.org
[332] Am 18. Mai 1735 schütteten die Direktoren der Sozietät eine Dividende von 4% an die Aktionäre aus. Dies erwies sich laut Netscher als schwerwiegender Fehler. In den folgenden Jahren war die Gesellschaft nicht in der finanziellen Lage das Fort Nassau anständig zu reparieren. Dies wurde ständig verschoben, bis das Fort zum Sklavenaufstand in 1763 sofort verlassen wurde, da es nicht zu verteidigen war und sich in einem desolaten Zustand befand.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 6 + 7
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 177-178 archive.org archive.org

[333] Patenteintrag „Ser. No. 615,124. Alfred Lamb & Son Limited, London, England. Filed June 13, 1951. (Sec. 2f.) 

For Rum.
Claims use since the year 1849.“
  • Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office, Band 671, The Office, 1953, Seite 634
[334] Laut P.M. Netscher sind auf einer Karte des Pioniers Jan Daniel Knapp, datiert um 1740 herum, 93 private Plantagen am Fluss Berbice und dem Wironje Creek und bis zu 20 am Canje Creek.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 4
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 173-174 archive.org archive.org
[335] Am 5. Juli 1762 ereignete sich eine kleine Meuterei auf den Plantagen Goedland und Goed Fortuin. 36 Sklaven plünderten die Plantagen und flohen in die nahen Wälder. Es kostete den Kolonisten einige Wochen diesen Aufstand zu bändigen und war nur ein kleiner Vorgeschmack auf die folgenden Ereignisse, welche bald über die Kolonie hereinbrechen würden.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 14
Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 191-192 archive.org archive.org

[336] Aufstand der Sklaven im Februar 1763 in Berbice.
  • Berbice WIKIPEDIA

[337] Am 23. Februar 1763 begann der Aufstand der Sklaven in Berbice auf der Plantage Magdalenenburg.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 16
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 193 – 236 archive.org archive.org
[338] „Lamb, Alfred, & Son, Exporters and Dealers in Rums, 20, Great Tower Street, E.C. 3. Established 1849 by Alfred Lamb, who was joined by his son (Charles H. Lamb), the present senior partner in 1875. On the death of the founder in 1895, Alfred B. Lamb (retired 1908), and W. J. Godwin (retired 1919) joined the firm. Charles T. Brend became a partner in 1919. For the last fifty years the firm has confined itself exclusively to Rums. 
Proprietors of the following brands: 
“Lamb's <L> Imperial” (bulk and cane). 
“Golden Grove.” 
“Fine Old Navy.” 
“London Dock.”Avenue 1288 
“Tragedy, London.”

[339] “Omtrent het kortstondig bewind van Heijliger in Berbice 1766 valt niet veel meer aan te teekenen, dan dat die kolonie, evenals de naburige volkplantingen Essequebo, Bemerary en Snriname, in October 1766 door eene vrij hevige aardbeving werd bezocht, die ecbter meer schrik dan schade veroorzaakte, en. dat de hevige ziekte, die al sedert eenige jaren v66r en gedurende de geheele rebelUe de kolonie zoo zwaar geteisterd had, nu geheel scheen te hebben uitgewoed.”

  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 48
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 253 archive.org archive.org
[340] Die Pflanzer weigerten sich Steuern zum Wohle der Kolonie zu zahlen und um die entstandenen Schäden der Rebellion zu reparieren. Die verschiedenen Gouverneure in jeder Zeit waren entweder zu unentschlossen (wie z.B. Heijliger), zu untätig oder starben nach relativ kurzer Zeit. Der Geldmangel schlug sich auch in der Verteidigung nieder und so wurde diese auch seit der Rebellion im Jahre 1763 nicht ausgebaut. Die Kolonie stagnierte. Zwischen den Jahren 1768 bis 1772 waren die Plantagen in Berbice am Markt in Holland unverkäuflich (im Sinne von: Es wollte sie keiner kaufen).
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 48
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 253-258 archive.org archive.org
[341] Erst mit der Vereidigung von Pieter Hendrik Koppiers schien ein vielversprechender Gouverneur für die Kolonie gewonnen worden zu sein. Er wurde am 19. Juni 1778 in Holland vereidigt und traf noch im Oktober in der Kolonie ein um seine Arbeit aufzunehmen. Seine erste Arbeit bestand darin den Status quo der Verteidigung in Erfahrung zu bringen. Diesen berichtete er sodann an die Direktoren in Holland, welche unverzüglich, auf seiner Empfehlung hin, den fähigen Jan Carel Willem Herlin engagierten. Dieser sollte die Verteidigung der Kolonie innerhalb weniger Jahre auf einen ordentlichen Stand bringen. Nachdem die Frage des gehalts und der Finanzierung geklärt war unternahm Jan Carel Willem Herlin im Sommer 1779 die Reise nach Berbice. Die Reise gestaltete sich allerdings etwas mühselig und so erreichte er erst am 28. März des Jahres 1780 die Kolonie. Er nahm unverzüglich seine Arbeit auf. Das Fort St. Andries und der Posten Niewslot sollten derart befestigt werden, dass es für eine Fregatte oder Freibeuterschiff nicht möglich sei die Kolonie zu erreichen. Allerdings kamen diese Anstrengungen, wie wir noch später sehen werden, viel zu spät.
  • History of the Colonies Essequebo, Demerara and Berbice From the Dutch Establishment to the present day, 1888, P.M. Netscher, translated by W.E.Roth, Kapitel 9 Seite 48
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 258-259 archive.org archive.org
[342] “Het bestaan der kolonie Berbice als eigendom eener particuliere maatscbappij zou ecbter niet lang meer duren, want 1795 bij Resol. der Staten-Generaal van 9 October 1795 werd bepaald, dat de in 1792 ingestelde Baad van kolonien, benevens de Directie van de kolonie Berbice en de Societeit van Suriname “werden vemietigd en gehouden voor niet meer te existeren," terwijl met het toezicht over al die kolonien (dnaook dekustvan Afrika, Demerary & Essequebo en de W.-I. eilanden) belast werd een „Commité tot de zaken van de kolonien en bezit- tingen op de kust.van G-uinea en in America." De vemietiging dezer particuliere maatschappijen, evenals in 1791 die der W.-I. Comp. , werd gemotiveerd door deoverweging, dat zij langzamerhand van karakter veranderd waren en bijna geen handel meer dreven, maar tocli kolonien bezaten; dat voor die kolonien, alien onder verschillende autoriteiten in Holland staande, geen gemeenschappelijke beschikkingen mogelijk waren; dat die verschillende direction alien gevoerd werden door kooplieden en rechtsgeleerden , alléén bezield door een bekrompen handelsgeest en die daarbg de defensie-zaken geheel verwaarloosden, waardoor bonne kolonien op de eerste vertooning van een vijand steeds gevaar liepenl Om al deze redenen achtten H. Hoog Mog. bet wenschelijk , al die volkplantingen te brengen onder één Commits, dock wij zullen zien dat znlks niet veel gebaat beeft tot het behond der kolonien, alhoewel het Commits kort na zijne in functie treding eene som van één millioen verkreeg, om de noodzakelijkste voorzieningen te treflfen. (zie Resol. Staten-Generaal 11 December 1795).

Dit Commits bestond uit 21 leden, waarvan 2 voor H. Hoog Mog. 6 voor Holland, 3 voor Zeeland en 2 voor elk van de overige 5 provincien. Zeven dier leden waren bestemd voor de behan- deling der defensie- en militaire zaken, zeven voor de handelsen finantieele zaken en de andere zeven voor het nagaan van het huishoudelijk bestunr der kolonien, reglementen, wetgeving enz. De zittingen werden te 'sGravenhage gehouden.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 274-275 archive.org archive.org
[343] “In het laatst van 1795 was het tusschen Engeland en de Bataafsche republiek tot openbaren oorlog gekomen en den 20en April 1796 verscheen voor de Demerary-rivier een Engelsch eskader van 4 fregatten en 6 kleinere vaartuigen onder den commodore Parr, aan boord hebbende een korps van 1300 soldaten onder de luitenant-kolonels Tilson , Hislop en Gammell ; terwijl de geheele expeditie onder bevel stond van den generaal-majoor Whyte. Den 21en deed meneenepogingtotlanden, maar de meeste sloepen bleven op de modderbank voor het fort steken en het zou niet moeielijk zijn geweest voor de Hollandsche bezetting, of voor het Hollandsche oorlogsfregat dat daar lag , om die landingstroepen te vemietigen : officieren , soldaten en matrozen waren echter alien Oranjegezind en wil- den niet tegen [de Engelschen vechten, zoodat, toen de Engelsche commandant den volgenden dag een parlementair met vlag zond om de kolonie op te eischen, de Gouverneur Beaujon genoodzaakt was zich over te geven. Deze capitulatie van Demerary & Essequebo van 22 April 1796 geschiedde op de meest voordeelige termen: volkomen zekerheid van persoonlijke vrijheid en vrije uitoefening van godsdienst voor alle inwoners , waarborgen voor alle particulieren eigendom (uitgezonderd als de bezitters Franschen waren) , gelijke handelsrechten en privilegien als andere Britsche onderdanen in West-Indie , officieren en soldaten des verkiezende over te gaan in betaling en onder eed bij de Engelschen (tot het herstel van den Stadhouder) en eindelijk de Gouvemeur en civiele ambtenaren desverkiezende in functie te blijven, voor zooverre zy niet als Fransch-gezind bekend waren.

De generaal Whyte zond onmiddellijk een zijner fregatten met een detachement troepen naar Berbice , om ook die kolonie op te eischen en de Gouvemeur Batenburg capituleerde den Sen Mei d. a. v. op dezelfde voorwaarden als voor Demerary & Essequebo toegestaan waren. Tevens werd nog op zijn stellig aandringen de bepaling daarbij gevoegd: „dat alléén overgave „van de Souvereiniteit der Colonie, met de daartoe behoorende nposten, forten en militaire magazijnen geschiedde", zoodat alle Kolonie-plantages met slaven en gereedschappen, zoomede alle nog niet nitgegeven landen en de achterstallige of nog te betalen akkergelden als particulier eigendom van de actionarissen der Societeit of Associatie van Berbice zouden worden beschouwd *). Van Batenburg en Beaujon verklaarden zich beiden volgaame bereid, om den eed van trouw aan den Koning
van Engeland te doen en bleven dns in hnnne betrekking als Gouverneur gehandhaafd, dock het opper-commando over de Engelsche troepen in de beide kolonien Berbice en Demerary & Essequebo werd opgedragen aan den Engelschen luitenant-kolonel Hislop (113).”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 280-281 archive.org archive.org
[344] Ein Gerücht über baldige Freiheit und die darauf folgende Enttäuschung, da es noch weit bis zum eigentlichen Emanicpation Act war, ließ die Sklaven am 17. August 1823 zu einem Aufstand verleiten. Am 19. August wurde das Kriegsrecht ausgerufen Am 21. August kam es zum Gefecht zwischen den englischen Truppen und 2000 Aufständischen. Am 22. August bot der Gouverneur allen Aufständischen eine Begnadigung an, wenn sie sich sofort ergaben. Dies galt allerdings nicht für die Anstifter. Ende August wurde ihnen der Prozess gemacht und die Verantwortlichen gehängt.
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 305-308 archive.org archive.org
[345] “Gfroot was de blijdscliap en opgewondenheid onder de kolonisten, dat zij aan dit geduchte gevaar ontsnapt waren en toen den 19en Januari 1824 de Krijgswet of Martial law opgeheven werd, ademde men weder geheel viij.”
  • Geschiedenis van de koloniën Essequebo: Demerary, en Berbice, van de vestiging der Nederlanders ... (1888), P.M. Netscher, Seite 309 archive.org archive.org
[346] Die drei Kolonien wurden endgültig vereint. Am 21. Juli 1831 wird der erste Gouverneur von British Guiana, Sir Benjamin d'Urban, vereidigt.
“Nach den Napoleonischen Kriegen fielen die Kolonien Essequibo, Demerara und Berbice durch den Britisch-Niederländischen Vertrag vom 13. August 1814 definitiv an Großbritannien.
Am 21. Juli 1831 wurden diese drei Kolonien dann als Britisch-Guayana zusammengefügt.”
[347] “In 1812 all distinctions between the colonies of Essequibo and Demerara, whether of jurisdiction or otherwise, were abolished –the office of Commander of Essequibo was done away with it, the courts of civil and criminal justice of both colonies united at Demerara, and the judicial establishment at Fort Island discontinued ; the name of the capital was also changed from Stabroek to George Town, and a board of of police appointed for its internal management, the financial representations of Demerara and Essequibo combined with the college of Kiezers, and the right of of suffrage extended to all persons paying income tax on 10,000 florins, or possessing twenty-five slaves.”
  • History of the West Indies: Comprising British Guiana, Barbadoes, St …, von R. Montgomery Martin, 1837, Seite 6,
[348] “It was renamed Georgetown on 29 April 1812 in honour of King George III. On 5 May 1812 an ordinance was passed to the effect that the town formerly called Stabroek, with districts extending from La Penitence to the bridges in Kingston and entering upon the road to the military camps, shall be called Georgetown. “
WIKIPEDIA, Georgetown, en.wikipedia.org
[349] "In 1833, they passed the 'Act of Emancipation' (emancipation means setting free). It set free every slave in the British colonies, and it became law on 1 August 1834."
- An Introduction to the History of Trinidad and Tobago, von Bridget Brereton, 1996, Seite 43
[350] "Second, the Act did not give total freedom. Instead, every slave over the age of six was to become an 'apprentice'. This did not mean what the word does today, a young person learning a skill. It meant the apprentice would still have to work for most of the week for his owner, now called 'master', without pay. This apprenticeship would last for four to six years."
- An Introduction to the History of Trinidad and Tobago, von Bridget Brereton, 1996, Seite 43
[351] "Quite soon, the government in Britain saw that the apprenticeship was cruel and unfair. It was also hard to organise. So after four years, on 1. August 1838, the apprenticeship ended. This was 'full free' at least. So the real end of slavery was in 1838, not 1834."
- An Introduction to the History of Trinidad and Tobago, von Bridget Brereton, 1996, Seite 43
[352] “In British Guiana the employment of indentured laborers from Germany, Portugal, and China, proved to be problematic due to the climate and harsh demands of the land. Henceforth, a more suitable labor force was needed, one that was cheap, accessible replenishable, controllable and acclimatized –the Indian national.”
  • Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition, Band 1, herausgegeben von Peter P. Hinks,John R. McKivigan,R. Owen Williams, 2007, Seite 115
[353] “British Guiana / Guyana 1838 – 1917 238,909 (indentured workers). Indian Population in 1980 424,400.”
Global Diasporas: An Introduction, von Professor of Sociology at the University of Warwick and Currently Dean of Humanities Robin Cohen,Robin Cohen, 2008, Seite 61 (Table 4.1)
[354] “Indian labour transportation to West Indies
After the end of slavery, the West Indian sugar colonies tried the use of emancipated slaves, families from Ireland, Germany and Malta and Portuguese from Madeira. All these efforts failed to satisfy the labour needs of the colonies due to high mortality of the new arrivals and their reluctance to continue working at the end of their indenture. On 16 November 1844, the Indian Government legalised emigration to Jamaica, Trinidad and Demerara (Guyana). The first ship, the Whitby, sailed from Port Calcutta for British Guiana on 13 January 1838, and arrived in Berbice on 5 May 1838. Transportation to the West Indies stopped in 1848 due to problems in the sugar industry and resumed in Demerara and Trinidad in 1851 and Jamaica in 1860. “
WIKIPEDIA, Indian indenture system, en.wikipedia.org
[355] “This influx begun in 1838, was temporarily suspended by the Indian government from 1839 to 1844 and again from 1848 to 1851, because of a high mortality rate among indentured labourers and allegations that their working conditions were nearly as bad as under slavery.”
  • The British Caribbean: from the decline of colonialism to the end of federation, Elisabeth Wallace, University of Toronto Press, 1977 - 274 Seiten , Seite 5
[356] “After the abolition, they tried to get free labourers from the neighbouring West Indian Islands and from Madeira. In this latter Island much harm was caused to the cultivation of the vine by disease, and many people who had lost their means of livelihood in that way emigrated to British Guiana, were they settled.”
The World's Cane Sugar Industry: Past and Present, von H. C. Prinsen Geerligs,

[357] “In 1853 two shiploads of Chinese immigrants landed, and since 1859 Chinese labourers were systematically supplied up to 1866, when the Chinese Government wished the immigrants to send the people back to the mother-country at the end of this indenture at the expense of the colony. But it was not the aim of the immigration to send the people back again, the immigration of Chinese labour soon came to an end. Later on it was agreed that the immigrants should receive a sum of $50 at the end of their five years' service which would enable them to pay their own passage if they wished to go back to China. This stipulation brought new immigrants: in 1874 388 left China, in 1878 another 515 came, but since then this source of labour has ceased.”
The World's Cane Sugar Industry: Past and Present, von H. C. Prinsen Geerligs, 2010, Seite 259

[358] “In 1928 Crown Colony government was introduced in British Guiana which had retained a modified version of the Dutch semi-representative system.”
  • The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume IV: The Twentieth Century, herausgegeben von Judith Brown,Wm Roger Louis, 1999, Seite ccclxvi
[359] “Eventually, the British government approved the British Guiana Act when King George V signed an order-in-council on July 18, 1928. This act abolished the old Dutch-influenced constitution, and a British Crown Colony constitution, which followed in great part the recommendations made by the commission, was introduced.
The new constitution was generally regarded as a backward step since it took away the powers from the electorate to elect a majority to govern the country. Significantly, it gave back power to the planter class, who had lost their influence in 1891, since their representatives could now be appointed to the Legislative Council by the governor.”
  • The Guyana Story: From Earliest Times to Independence, von Odeen Ishmael, 2013, Seite 351
[360] Im April des Jahres 1948 streikten die Cane Farmer für bessere Arbeitsbedingungen. Der Konflikte schwelte weiter bis zum 16. Juni 1948. An diesem Tag geriet der Streik außer Kontrolle und mündete in einer Schießerei auf der Enmore Fabrik. Es gab 5 Tote.
  • The Guyana Story: From Earliest Times to Independence, von Odeen Ishmael,
  • WIKIPEDIA, Enmore (Guyana), en.wikipedia.org
[361] „The 1905 Ruimveldt Riots rocked British Guiana. The severity of these outbursts reflected the workers' widespread dissatification with their standard of living. The uprising began in late November 1905 when the Georgetown stevedores went on strike, demanding higher wages. The strike grew confrontational, and other workers struck in sympathy, creating the country's first urban-rural worker alliance. On November 30, crowds of people took to the streets of Georgetown, and by December 1, 1905, now referred to as Black Friday, the situation had spun out of control. At the Plantation Ruimveldt, close to Georgetown, a large crowd of porters refused to disperse when ordered to do so by a police patrol and a detachment of artillery. The colonial authorities opened fire, and four workers were seriously injured.
Word of the shootings spread rapidly throughout Georgetown and hostile crowds began roaming the city, taking over a number of buildings. By the end of the day, seven people were dead and seventeen badly injured. In a panic, the British administration called for help. Britain sent troops, who finally quelled the uprising. Although the stevedores' strike failed, the riots had planted the seeds of what would become an organized trade union movement."
[362] „This was evident in the 1905 Plantation Ruimveldt riots which occurred in Georgetown and in which mainly African stevedores, factory hands, cane-cutters and gold miners took part and the Indian sugar workers stayed away in their homes (Nath 1970: 136-37; Rodney 1981: 190-216)."
  • Racial Discrimination Against Overseas Indians: A Class Analysis, von Prakash Chand Jain, 1990, Seite 65 
[363] „The Great Depression of the 1930s brought economic hardship to all segments of Guianese society. All of the colony's major exports—sugar, rice and bauxite—were affected by low prices, and unemployment soared. As in the past, the working class found itself lacking a political voice during a time of worsening economic conditions. By the mid-1930s, British Guiana and the whole British Caribbean were marked by labor unrest and violent demonstrations. In the aftermath of riots throughout the British West Indies, a royal commission under Lord Moyne was established to determine the reasons for the riots and to make recommendations.
In British Guiana, the Moyne Commission questioned a wide range of people, including trade unionists, Afro-Guyanese professionals, and representatives of the Indo-Guyanese community. The commission pointed out the deep division between the country's two largest ethnic groups, the Afro-Guyanese and the Indo-Guyanese. The largest group, the Indo-Guyanese, consisted primarily of rural rice producers or merchants; they had retained the country's traditional culture and did not participate in national politics. The Afro-Guyanese were largely urban workers or bauxite miners; they had adopted European culture and dominated national politics. To increase representation of the majority of the population in British Guiana, the Moyne Commission called for increased democratization of government as well as economic and social reforms.
The Moyne Commission report in 1938 was a turning point in British Guiana. It urged extending the franchise to women and persons not owning land and encouraged the emerging trade union movement. However, many of the Moyne Commission's recommendations were not immediately implemented because of the outbreak of World War II and because of British opposition.
With the fighting far away, the period of World War II in British Guiana was marked by continuing political reform and improvements to the national infrastructure. The governor, Sir Gordon Lethem, created the country's first Ten-Year Development Plan (led by Sir Oscar Spencer, the Economic Adviser to the Governor and Alfred P. Thorne, Assistant to the Economic Adviser), reduced property qualifications for officeholding and voting, and made elective members a majority on the Legislative Council in 1943. Under the aegis of the Lend-Lease Act of 1941, a modern air base (now Timehri Airport) was constructed by United States troops. By the end of World War II, British Guiana's political system had been widened to encompass more elements of society and the economy's foundations had been strengthened by increased demand for bauxite.”
[364] "Sale by Execution.- First Proclamation
Whereas I the undersigned by the virtue of authority received from His Honour Henry Beard, Esq. President of the Honourable the Courts of Criminal and Civil Justice of this Colony, dated the 19th January and 20th March 1821, granted upon the petitions presented by H. Stall, qq the heirs of the Late William Ord, deceased, plaintiff, against Stephen Mourant, defendant, have caused to be taken in execution, and placed under sequestration, the sugar estate called Port Mourant, situated on the Corentyn Coast, within this colony, with all its cultivation, slaves, buildings, and further appurtenances whatsoever thereto belonging ; be it therefore known, that I the undersign, or the Marshal for the time being, intend to sell at execution sale, after expiration of one year and six weeks, from the 2nd day of April 1821, the abovementioned estate called Port Mouant, with all its cultivation, slaves, buildings, and further appurtenances whatsoever thereto belonging and specified in the inventory, laying at the Marshal's Office, for the Inspection of those concerned, in order to recover, out of the proceeds of the sale of the said estate (if possible) such sum of money for which the same was taken in execution, and put under sequestration : all conformably to the regulations of the Honourable Court of Civil Justice of this Colony, dated the 20th December 1820, respecting the sale of the estates by execution therein.

The first proclamation published, by beat of drum, from the Court-House of this colony, and further dealt with according to law.--Berbice, 15th April, 1821.
K. Francken, First Marshal.
Inserted by Mr Guitaro, Notary, 27, Birchin-Lane, Cornhill.”

[365] “Marshal's-Office.-- Summons by Edict.
By virtue of an extract from the Register of the proceedings of the Court of Civil Justice, Berbice, Tuesday 31. August 1824;
I, the undersigned, at the instance of Robert Douglas and Martin Daly, Administrators to the estate of Stephen Mourant, deceased, do hereby, for the first time, summon by edict all known and unknown Creditors or Claimants against the estate of the aforementioned Stephen Mourant, deceased, to appear before the Bar of the Honourable Court of Civil Justice of this Colony, at their session, to be held in the month of April 1825, and following Sessions, for the purpose of there rendering in their respective claims, properly substantiated, and in due form and time, against aforenamend estate : Whereas in default which, and after the expiration of the fourth and last edict, will be proceed against the non-appearers accoring to law.
The first edict summons published as customary.--Berbice, 29th October 1824.
K. Francken, First Marshal.
Inserted by Mr Guitaro, Notary, 27, Birchin-Lane, Cornhill.”
  • The London Gazette; Publication date: 4 January 1825; Issue: 18096; Page: 31, www.thegazette.co.uk

[366] “British Guiana, County of Berbice
Second and Last edict
In pursuance of an extract from the minutes of the proceedings of the Roll Court, bearing date the 11th day of March 1839 ;
I, the undersigned, Marshal of this county in the name and behalf of John Chisholm and A.B. Ross, for themselves and, de ratio cavens, for the other executors of the last will and testament of the late Donald Ross, of Plantation Port Mourant, in this county, deceased, do hereby for the second and last time, by edict, cite all known and unknown creditors as well against the estate of the said Donald Ross, deceased, as against his plantation Port Mourant, cum anexis; to appear at the Roll Court of Civil Justice for this county, to be holden at the Court-House, in new Amsterdam, on 12th of August 1839, and following days, at ten o'clock A.M. in order to render their respective claims, property attested and in due form.
Whereas in default which, perpetuum silentium will be decreed against the non-appearers according to law.
Marshal's office, Berbice, this 14th day of March 1839.”
K. Francken, First Marshal.
  • The London Gazette; Publication date: 18 June 1839; Issue: 19743; Page: 1210; www.thegazette.co.uk

[367] “By virtue of an Order of his Honour Jeffery Hart Bent, Chief Justice of British Guiana, bearing date July 24th, 1851, in the matter of Her Majesty's Assistant Receiver-General versus the Proprietor or Proprietors, or Representative or Representatives of Plantation Port Mourant and Ankerville, situate on the Correrityne Coast of the county of Berbice, in British Guiana ;
I the undersigned, Provost-Marshal of British Guiana, or my lawful deputy, will expose for sale at public judicial auction, in the month of August 1852; The Sugar Plantation or Estate known as Port Mourant and Ankerville, consisting of lots, numbers tea (10), eleven (11), and the western one-third of lot number twelve (12), including the second depths of said lots numbers ten (10), eleven (11), and the western onethird of lot number twelve (12), all situate, lying, and being on the east sea coast or Correntyne coast of the county of Berbice, in British Guiana, together with the cultivation, buildings, machinery, punts, live and dead stock, and further appurtenances thereunto belonging, save and except a plot or piece of land being part of the western half of Plantation Port Mourant, as laid down in a diagram of the Sworn Land Surveyor Duncan Fraser, dated 16th August 1843, transported to the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of British Guiana, on the 16th October 1843.
All persons who may have any right, title, or interest in and to the nett proceeds of the property above described, are hereby summoned to appear in person, or by attorney, at the Registrar's office for the county of Berbice within one calendar month after the expiration of the Registrar's advertisement to that effect (which advertisement will be issued twenty-one days after the sale of said property), for the purpose of delivering into said Registrar's office their respective claims, with all documents and vouchers in support thereof, in order that the Honourable the Supreme Court of Civil Justice of British Guiana may proceed to a decision of prae et concurrentiae on the said nett proceeds, on
pain, in default thereof, as the law directs.
An inventory of said plantation may be seen at the counting-house of Messrs. John Kingston and Company, No. 6, Crosby-square, London. Marshal's Office; this 27th day of August 1851.
W. H. HOLMES, Provost-Marshal.”
  • The London Gazette; Publication date: 26 September 1851; Issue: 21248 Page: 2455; www.thegazette.co.uk

[368] Fußnote 38 der Doktorarbeit von Clement Toolsie Shiwcharan
“38 Port Mourant was owned by Stephen Mourant in 1820; John Kingston bought it in 1852; for the rest of the century, his family owned it. In 1880, this estate procured a Crown Land licence to dig a canal to the Canje Creek, to the south: irrigation water was obtained; a large stretch of land, 'considered the very forest cane land in British Guiana', became accessible; and safer shipping facilities on the Canje Creek were constructed. In 1883, an astute observer wrote of Port Mourant: 'A noble canal, 13 miles in length, connects the sugar works.... with the Canje Creek.... he sugar manufactory has been kept up with the spirit of the times.... The very fine mixed soils of sandy loam and shells which crop out on the coast in front of Port Mounmt help to make it one of the most salubrious places in which to reside in the three counties'. See Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the 'Argosy', Walter Rodney, (ed. ), (Georgetown: Release Publishers, 1979), pp. 81-82,97.”
  • INDIANS IN BRITISH GUIANA, 1919-1929, A study in effort and achievement by Clement Toolsie Shiwcharan, October 1990, (Doktorarbeit), University of Warwick, wrap.warwick.ac.uk

[369] “The last member of the Booker family to be active in the firm was John H. Booker, a younger brother of Josias II. He sold his interests to the McConnells in 1885. At the turn of the century, the McConnells had three companiesBooker Brothers, George Booker & Company, and John McConnell & Company — with operations in Georgetown, Liverpool, and London still largely based on the Guiana trade.”
  • The global marketplace: 102 of the most influential companies outside America, Milton Moskowitz, Macmillan, 01.01.1988 - 708 Seiten, Seite 80

[370] “It handled the shipping and supplies for Booker Bros, as Josias Booker developed as a planter in British Guiana. John McConnell went to the colony as a clerk in 1846 and in the 1870s founded the firm, John McConnell and Co. He had worked as a partner of Booker Bros, from London, providing supplies as well as supervising the finances of his own firm and Booker Bros in British Guiana. His sons, A.J. McConnell and F.V. McConnell, entered the firm in 1889 and 1890 respectively. In 1900 the two firms merged, becoming Booker Bros, McConnell and Co, with A.J. McConnell as chairman, a post he held until 1920.3
  • Sweetening "bitter sugar": Jock Campbell, the Booker reformer in British Guiana, 1934-1966, Clem Seecharan, Ian Randle Publishers, 2005 - 675 Seiten, Seite 335

[371] “In 1951, the year after the Jagans founded their party, an MI5 agent based on the nearby island of Trinidad described them as "something new in British Guiana politics". "Both are able and intelligent and the mere fact that Janet Jagan is white, young and not unattractive in appearance lends considerable interest to her activities and those of her husband," he said. To British authorities, the Jagans were a headache. To the Americans, they were a potential communist threat on America's doorstep.
MI5 concluded that their party was "not receiving any financial support from any communist organisation outside the country".Nonetheless, amid worsening strikes and unrest, Britain grew unhappy with the Jagans' "disruptive antics". After the party won a huge majority in British Guiana's 1953 election, making Cheddi Jagan prime minister, Churchill decided to act. "We ought surely to get American support in doing all that we can to break the communist teeth in British Guiana," he wrote to his colonial secretary.
In the end, Britain acted alone, mounting a military operation codenamed Operation Windsor. Churchill dispatched a warship, HMS Superb, and brought hundreds of troops by air and sea to secure key sites. On 9 October, Britain suspended British Guiana's constitution, fired its legislators and arrested the Jagans. The surprise military operation went according to plan. The Trinidad-based MI5 officer noted with quiet satisfaction that "it was obvious that the PPP leaders had no idea that the constitution would be suspended or that they might be arrested".
And the spy threw in a note of thanks for the women who helped the army to march on its stomach. "I might add in parenthesis that catering arrangements for the airborne troops during their halt in Trinidad were carried out by Mrs Beadon, wife of the commissioner of police, Mrs Rahr, my wife and Joyce Huggins … and I understand that no less than 600 large sandwiches were cut by these ladies," he wrote. An outraged Cheddi Jagan appealed by telegram to Britain's opposition Labour party for help. Leader Clement Attlee replied curtly: "Regret impossible to intervene."
For the next three years, British Guiana was ruled under emergency powers by the British governor and appointed officials, and the Jagans were kept under house arrest and strict surveillance. In the years that followed, MI5 softened somewhat toward Cheddi Jagan, acknowledging that he was an astute and popular politician – though the agent based in Trinidad strongly disliked Janet Jagan, whom he described as a committed communist "uncompromising in her hatreds". By the 1960s, Britain's spies worried that the Jagans would turn to newly communist Cuba, possibly making their country a base for Latin American revolutionaries.

"If the Jagans remain in power after independence and if their activities and views remain unchanged, they will represent a threat to the stability both of British Guiana itself and of the neighbouring territories," the officer wrote. Andrew said it was clear from previously released official documents that successive British governments "gave in to pressure from the White House to allow the CIA to use subterranean means to ensure that the first leader of independent Guyana in 1966 was not Cheddi Jagan".”
  • MI5 files reveal details of 1953 coup that overthrew British Guiana's leaders, Documents released by National Archives show prime minister Winston Churchill feared the colony would turn communist, theguardian.com, Friday 26 August 2011 13.33 BST, www.theguardian.com

[372] „1953: Following a political crisis in British Guyana, Booker McConnell's board of directors decides that diversification should become a priority. As a result interest in food distribution and engineering in the U.K. begins.
1956: Booker McConnell acquires George Fletcher & Co., a British engineering business.
1957: Alfred Button & Sons is purchased. This food company includes the small supermarket chain of Budgen, a business Booker McConnell will develop in later years
1962: The Nigerian Sugar Company is formed, with Booker McConnell taking a share in the equity and given the task of developing and managing a major new estate in Bacita, Nigeria.
1964: Booker Agricultural and Technical Services, later renamed Booker Agriculture International (BAI), is set up to develop management and consulting services worldwide.
1968 June 7: The company's name is shortened to Booker McConnell Ltd.
1968: The company's Zambian subsidiary sells a 51% share in its stores and shops to the Zambian Government.”
  • Notable Corporate Chronologies: A-K, Julie A. Mitchell, Gale Group, 2001 - 2468 Seiten, Seite 357

[373] The Growing Economic Crisis
In the 1970s and 1980s, Guyana suffered a severe economic crisis. It was in large part due to the incompetence of the Burnham regime, particularly the administration of the industries that had it nationalized, especially bauxite and sugar.
The effects of this maladministration were particularly evident in the sugar industry. Whereas in 1976, the last year that sugar was in private hands, the output had been 332,457 tons,118 if fell drastically thereafter. By 1984 it had fallen to 241,861 tons,199 and by 1988 it was only 167,660 tons, “the lowest in living memory at that time, but this record was broken as production declined over the next three years to reach an all-time low in 1990.”120
Nanda Gopaul reported on interviews with eight sugar foremen who elaborated on the decline of the sugar industry under the Guyana Sugar Corporation. They “indicated that after nationalization, and specially after the 1977 strike, the situation became chaotic. The twenty per cent replanting exercise was never achieved, planned maintenance of the factory was never accomplished, spares were always in short supply and everything depended on the availability of foreign exchange. In effect, the government squandered money and stifled the sugar industry.”121
The government spent substantial amounts of resources on efforts to “open up” the interior. However, a road that it built for this purpose was more or less in shambles by the late 1970s, and most of its schemes for establishing settlements in the area had failed by that time.122
The administration of Desmond Hoyte, who succeeded to the presidency upon the death of Linden Burnham, finally faced up to the failure of the government's sugar firm, the Guyana Sugar Corporation, and intvited the Bookers subidiary, Booker Tate, to return to Guyana in 1990 to manage the country's sugar industry, albeit as an agent of the government's company. The unions immediately found that Booker Tate management was more willing to negotiate with them than the government firm had been.123 The fall in the productivity of the Guyanese economy carried with it a marked inflation. A committee appointed in March 1981 by the Trades Union Council reported that “the real value of the $200 per month in January 1977 was $120,77 as calculated from the C.P.I.(Consumer Price Index) (1987 [$]100), while its value at September 1980 was $102,07.”124
  • A History of Organized Labor in the English-speaking West Indies, von Robert J. Alexander,Eldon M. Parker, 2004, Seite 397-398

[374] In October 2004 TSB Sugar Holdings (Proprietary) Limited (TSB), a major sugar producer in South Africa, acquired Booker Tate. TSB is a wholly owned subsidiary of Remgro, an investment holding company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
Booker Tate was formed in 1988 when Booker plc and Tate & Lyle plc, two major international food production and trading companies, merged their agro-industrial and project management businesses to form a jointly owned company.”
[375] In Brief
1976 Sugar industry is nationalised
1976 Booker Tate provides limited technical assistance
1990 Booker Tate signs full operational management agreement
1996 Sugar production reaches 280,000 ts
2002 Sugar production 331,067 ts – highest since 1976
2005 Contract signed to build the new Skeldon factory and co-generation plant
2008 Booker Tate continued to provide services under the operational management agreement and project management services for the new Skeldon factory
2009 With completion of the Skeldon factory, Booker Tate’s contract was completed”

[376] “The SWOT analysis identifies Skeldon and Wales as the factories with the most weaknesses. The weaknesses of Skeldon is nearly triple its strengths, while only two of the factories outlined —Uitvlugt and East Demerara—had five or more strengths. Even though Albion hadn’t as many listed strengths, it has been dubbed “an efficient factory.”
Interestingly, despite the Uitvlugt and East Demerara sugar factories having the most listed strengths, the weaknesses outweighed them as well.
The weaknesses highlighted in the analysis include “unresolved/prolonged technical difficulties with the New Skeldon Factory which began since the 2nd crop 2008.”
It was also stated that as a result of the technical difficulties with the Skeldon Factory, Skeldon farmers have been reluctant to continue or come on board with GuySuCo.
Some of the other major weaknesses include the inability to consistently achieve the projected grinding hours, resulting in significant increases in other costs such as fuel consumption, mill dock operations and support services; inability to procure key inputs in a timely manner and higher than anticipated wage increase.”
  • Skeldon, Wales are weakest GuySuCo estates – SWOT analysis”, June 4, 2014 | By KNews | Filed Under News, www.kaieteurnewsonline.com

[377] Die Plantagen La Bonne Intention (L.B.I.) und Beterverwagting (B.V.W.) von William Russel für das Jahr 1882. „80.238 gallons rum produced 43,2 o.p.“

[378] Die Zuckeranwesen und Plantagen von 1909 im Handbuch von British Guiana
  • Handbook of British Guiana 1909, George D. Bayle, Seiten 541 – 543 archive.org

[379] Artikel vom 28. Oktoker 1916
Plantation La Bonne Intention, one of the East Coast estates, changed hands this week from the English firm to a local syndicate. A large surprisingly large amount of money is forthcoming in these days for purchasing sugar plantations. The price paid has not yet been disclosed in this instance.”
  • Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, Band 57, 1916, Seite 281

[380] “The gradual centralisation of sugar processing progressed further in 1959 with the completion of the erection of a modern sugar factory at La Bonne Intention. This factory will have a capacity of 33,000 tons of raw sugar, and will cater for the estates of La Bonne Intention, Ogle and Houston. The factory of Ogle will cease operation at the end of 1958.”

[381] „The sugar industry recorded a production of 67,299 tonnes, which was the lowest figure in first crop production in over 20 years. Kaieteur News understands that as at the week ending May 6, 2012, the sugar industry recorded a production of 67,299 tonnes.

Last year, the country saw production of 106,627 tonnes at the end of that first crop and this year the industry barely managed to scrape 63 per cent of that total.The Rose Hall factory in Berbice produced 79 tonnes of sugar as at the week ending May 6, 2012, and the Blairmont factory, also in the Ancient County, recorded a production of 139 tonnes.
Meanwhile, the Enmore sugar factory located on the East Coast of Demerara (ECD) saw a poor yield of 156 tonnes for that period.

For the Skeldon Sugar Estate, Corentyne, Berbice, which had a history of being the best yielding estate of cane and sugar per acre in previous years, the workers only managed to produce 6,596 tonnes at the week ending May 6, 2012, in comparison with the 6,944 tonnes produced at the Uitvlugt Sugar Estate, West Coast Demerara.

The factory at Skeldon has produced the lowest amount of sugar in the 2012 first crop than any other factory in the entire industry. In 2011, the first crop at Albion, Berbice, produced 28,504 tonnes of sugar; in 2012 it only produced 16,135 tonnes up to the week ending May 6.

Rose Hall, which had produced 15,430 tonnes last year, could only produce 10,640 tonnes for their first crop for this year while Blairmont produced 10,122 tonnes as at May 6, 2012 which was a much lower figure than the 2011 achievement of 17,611 tonnes for the same period. It was noted that at the end of the first crop in 2011, the factory at La Bonne Intention (LBI), was closed off and the cane from there is presently being grinded at the Enmore factory. 

However, in 2011 the Enmore/LBI combination produced 13,452 tonnes of sugar. This year they only achieved 8,246 tonnes. For Wales, West Bank Demerara, for the first crop in 2011 the factory produced 10,752 tonnes but this year it only produced 8,615 tonnes of sugar, while the Uitvlugt factory generated 6,999 tonnes in comparison with last year’s 10,442 tonnes."

[382] Besitzer und Namen der Zuckerplantagen aus dem Jahre 1882

[383] “Sir Henry Katz Davson was born on 31 January 1830.1 He was the son of Simon Davson.2 He married Ann Helen Miller, daughter of Thomas Miller, on 15 August 1871.1 He died on 21 February 1909 at age 79.1
 He was head of Henry K. Davson & Company at London, England.1 He was member of the Court of Policy, British Guiana.1
Children of Sir Henry Katz Davson and Ann Helen Miller
  • Lt.-Col. Harry Miller Davson+2 b. 4 Jun 1872, d. 10 Nov 1961
  • Sir Edward Rae Davson, 1st Bt.+2 b. 14 Feb 1875, d. 6 Aug 1937
  • Lt.-Col. Sir Ivan Buchanan Davson2 b. 1884, d. 27 Jan 1947
  • Lieutenant Thomas Gordon Davson2 b. 31 May 1888, d. 13 May 1915

Citations
  1. [S37] BP2003 volume 1, page 1056. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
  2. [S37] BP2003. [S37]“

[384] Sugar Estates Listing (by location)-British Guiana 1860, by S. Anderson (2007)

[385] Ausgabe vom 9. Dezember 1865 der “The Law Times”
“The Colonial Company
Limited
Incorporated under the Companies' Act 1862
Capital in 2,000,000₤ , in 40,000 shares of 50₤ each.

PROSPECTUS.
The special advantages to be derived from the employment of capital through the medium of joint-stock companies, with limited liability, in purchasing and working colonial properties, have been demonstrated by the great success attendant on such operations in India, Ceylon, Borneo, and elsewhere, and its considered that no properties can be made to benefit a greater extent or to produce more remunerative results from the introductions of joint-stock capital than than West India sugar estates.
The object of this company is the purchase and extenstion of sugar plantations and the business of the well-known firms of Messrs. Cavan, Lubbock & Co., and Messers. Wm. Burnley Hume & Co.
The estates and real securities to be transferred to the company by the vendors are in Demerara, Berbice, Trinidad and Barbadoes. The estates are fertile, well situated, and in a high state of cultivation. They are provided with an ample supply of coolie, Chinese, Portuguese, and creole labour.”
  • The Law Times: The Journal and Record of the Law and the Lawyers, Band 41, Seite 70

[386] Colonial Company wird 1901 aufgelöst. Die New Colonial Company tritt an ihre Stelle
“The Colonial Company Limited.
NOTICE is hereby given, that in pursuance of section 142 of the Companies Act, 1862, a General Meeting of the Members of the above Company will be held at the offices of the New Colonial Company Limited. No. 20, Eastcheap, London, E.G.. on Tuesday, the 19th day of March, 1901, at 12 o'clock noon, for the purpose of having an account laid before them, showing the manner in which the winding up has been conducted, and the property of the Company disposed of, and of hearing any explanation which may be given by the Liquidator ; and also of determining by Extraordinary Resolution the manner in which the books, accounts, and documents of the Liquidator shall be disposed of.—Dated this 12th day of February, 1901.
EDWIN WATER HOUSE, Liquidator.
TRAVERS SMITH BRAITHWAITE and
ROBINSON, 4, Tbrogmorton - avenue,
London, E.G., Solicitors.”
  • The London Gazette ; Publication date: 15 February 1901 ; Issue: 27285 ; Page: 1174 www.thegazette.co.uk

[387] 1913: Die New Colonial Company wird aufgelöst

“In the High Gourtof Justice.—Companies (Winding-up).

Mr. Justice Astbury.

No. 00274 of 1913.

In the Matter of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908, and in the Matter of the NEW COLONIAL COMPANY Limited.



NOTICE is hereby given, that a petition for the winding-up of the above named Company by the High Court of Justice was, on the 28th day of July, 1913, presented to the said Court by Arthur Reginald Bradbury, James Morris Hirsch and Robert Dixon Steele, trading as Bradbury and Hirsch, at 11, Dale-street, Liverpool, General Brokers, creditors of the said Company; and that the said petition is directed to be heard before the Court siting at the Royal Courts of Justice, Strand, London, on the 14th day of October, 1913; and any creditor or contributory of the said Company desirous to support or oppose the making of an order on the said petition may appear at the time of hearing, by himself or his Counsel, for that purpose; and a copy of the petition will be furnished to any creditor or contributory of the said Company requiring the same by the undersigned, on, payment of the regulated charge for the same.



INCE, COLT, INCE and ROSCOE, St. Benet Chambers, Fenchurch-street, E.G.; Agents for

H. FORSHAW and HAWKINS, of Liverpool,Solicitors for the Petitioners.



NOTE.—Any person who intends to appear on the hearing of the said petition must serve on or send by post to the above named, Ince, Colt, Ince and Roscoe, notice in writing of his intention so to do. The notice must state the name and address of the person, or, if a firm, the name and address of the firm, and must be signed by the person or firm, or his or their Solicitor (if any), and must be served, or, if posted, must be sent by post in sufficient time to reach the above named not later than 6 o'clock in the afternoon on the 13th day of October, 1913, c81.”

  • The London Gazette Publication date: 16 September 1913 ; Issue: 28756 ; Page: 6586 ; www.thegazette.co.uk



[388] Tabelle mit den Plantagen
  • The Laws of British Guiana, Band 3, Guyana, H. Hart, 1895, Seite 420

[389] „Wieting and Richter Limited, general Wholesale and Retail merchants, Commission Agents, etc..
...

Prominent amongst the latter is that of Meers. Wieting and Richter, Ltd., incorporated in 1910, which is, and has been for very many years, the largest firm having its principals resident in the city. It was started by Mr. Carl Wieting, who died in 1919, and Mr. Gustav Henry Richter, who died 1909.

They also began to acquire interests in many of the local industries. In 1879 they purchased the sugar plantation “Nismes,” which made the findest muscovado molasses in the West Indies. In 1896-97 they formed a syndicate for the purchase of " Versailles" plantation, and later became shareholders in the "Cornelia Ida" Syndicate.“
  • The Red Book of the West Indies: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial, Facts, Figures, & Resources, Allister Macmillan, W.H. & L. Collingridge, 1922 - 424 Seiten, , Seite 285

[390] Wieting & Richter besitzt Versailles und Nismes im Jahre 1917.
“Wieting & Richter
Limited
CARL WIETING CECIL MARTIN-SPERRY
Italian Consul Dutch Consul

….

The Guyana Rice Mill, and
Plantation " Nismes";
SHAREHOLDERS IN AND AGENTS OF
The "VERSAILLES" Plantation Company, Ltd.”
  • Timehri: The Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British Guiana, Sir Everard Ferdinand Im Thurn, J. Thomson, 1917



[391] “Mr. Chow, representing the chinese community, was a member of the deputation that proceed to London in 1919 in connection with the Labour question of the colony. He is Director of the Guiana Wharf and Storage Co., Ltd., which owns several acres of wharves and stores adjacent to Messrs. Birch & Co.'s premises, and also of the Schoonord Sugar Estate, Ltd.; Plantation New Freights, Ltd. ; Plantation Mars, Ltd. ; Plantation Springlands, Ltd.; and and Pimento and D'Oliveira, Ltd.; and is Chairman'of the Versailles and Nismes Sugar Estate Companies, Ltd.; the British Guiana Coconut Estate. Ltd.”
  • The Red Book of the West Indies: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial, Facts, Figures, & Resources, Allister Macmillan, W.H. & L. Collingridge, 1922 - 424 Seiten, Seite 294

[392] Die Zuckerfabriken und ihre Eigentümer 1923
  • The Planter and Sugar Manufacturer: Annual review number, Band 1, 1923, Seite 56

[393] Die Zuckerfabriken und ihre Eigentümer 1925
  • The Reference Book of the Sugar Industry of the World, Lousiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer., 1925, Seite 76

[394] Die Zuckerfabriken und ihre Eigentümer 1929
  • The Reference Book of the Sugar Industry of the World, Lousiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer., 1929, Seite 56

[395] Die Zuckerfabriken und ihre Eigentümer 1937
  • Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal, Band 61, Willett & Gray, 1937, Seite 414

[396] Die Zuckerfabriken und ihre Eigentümer 1949
  • Colonial, Ausgaben 246-250, H.M. Stationery Office, 1949, Seite 172

[397] „George Fletcher and Co., of Masson Works, Derby, for erection on plantation " Port Mourant," Berbice, British Guiana, to the order of Messrs. Booker, Bros., McConnell and Co., Ltd., of London, Liverpool, and Demerara, and in accordance with instructions received from Mr . W. H. Parratt, M.Inst.C.E., and Mr. C. T. erthon, A.M.Inst.C.E., who act as consulting engineers to Messrs. Booker,..”
  • Page's Engineering Weekly, Band 8, Page Publishing Syndicate, Limited., 1906, Seite 349

[398] „57. The proprietors referred to were Steele & Loxdale, who bought Great Diamond in 1848 and Little Diamond in 1856. Golden Grove was also theirs between 1853 and c.1862, after which it was described as a plantain estate.
58. The "present owners" were Sandbach Parker, who held an interest in Little Diamond from 1836 to 1856, and who had apparently decided by this date that they were going to concentrate on...”
  • Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Contemporary Description from the "Argosy", Walter Rodney, Release Publishers, 1979 - 97 Seiten, Seite 90

[399] “NOTICE is hereby given, that the Copartnership for some past carried on by the undersigned, Thomas Murray. Henry Murray, Matthew Steele (deceased), and George Henry Loxdale, at Liverpool, in the county of Lancaster, under the style or firm of Murrays, Loxdale, and Company, and at Demerara, in the colony of British Guiana, under the style or firm of Steele, Loxdale, and Company, expired on the 31st day of December last by effluxion of time. All debts due to or owing by the said Murrays, Loxdale, and Company, will he received and paid at their office, No. 5, Rumford-street, Liverpool aforesaid,
and all debts due to and owing by the said Steele, Loxdale and Coy., will be received and paid at their office, in the city of Georgetown, in Demerara aforesaid.—Liverpool, 1st January, 1861.
Th. Murray.
Henry Murray
by his Attorney George H. Loxdale
George H . Loxdale
Executor Matthew Steele, deceased
George H. Loxdale”
  • The London Gazette ; Publication date: 8 January 1861 ; Issue: 22468 ; Page: 100 www.thegazette.co.u
[400] “In 1891 Company purchased from the old partnership two sugar estates, Diamond and Providence, which sugar production amounted to 7,45 tons, each possessing it's own factory. In 1904 production was 13,500 tons. In 1910 another acquisition in plantation " Ruimveldt " was erected, and in 1921 a larger plantation, " Leonora," was purchased.
...

Sugar plantations owned by Company are: (1) “Diamond,” comprising 8,000 acres, managed by W. A. Campbell, Engineer: C. H. Stonehouse, Chemist: A. Harley. (2) “Providence,” comprising 2,000 acres. Manager T. Searle. Plan. Farm : T. B. Greenfield, Riumveldt. (3) Farm, 2,000 acres. (4) " Ruimveldt R.L. Fernandes," of 1,000 acres. (5) " Leonora," 4,000 acres managed by E. H. Kingston, with A. E. E. De Groot, Engineer, and H. J. Larsen, Chemist ; and (6) " Cornelia Ida," of 1,000 acres managed by J. L. Laing.”
  • Caribbean Who, What, why, Band 1, , The British Lloyd Sydney Smith, Bell & Bain., 1955, Seite 801

[401] „In 1967 the distillery buisness of Diamond Estate was vested in a new company, Diamond Liquors Ltd.. This was a public company . Thirty-three per cent of the shares was subscribed for locally, but the majority washeld by Demerara Company Holdings.“
  • From Plantocracy to Nationalisation: A Profile of Sugar in Guyana, University of Guyana, 1983 - 440 Seiten, M. Shahabuddeen, Seite 109

[402] “In 1969 Jessels securities acquired Demerara Company, Sandbach Parker and Diamond Liquors from the Demerara Company Holdings in the United Kingdom. In January 1975 the state announced that negotiations would commence for the nationalization of the Jessels interest. these started in March 1975.”
Agreement was reached on the 20th May 1975 for the state to acquire all the interest in the Demerara Company Sugar Estate, Sandbach Parker and all other related...”
  • Annual report, Demerara Distillers Limited, 2000, Seite 18

[403] “Under the Vesting of Property( Acquisition or Purchase) Act, 1975, Jessel Securities Limited (Sandbach Parker & Company Limited) was nationalised with effect from May 26, 1975. The Company had been ailing for some years; its factory capacity (Diamond Estate in particular) was grossly under-utilised and its agricultural practices inefficient. Jessels had attempted to dispose of its assets to another expatriate-owned company, but such a transfer of local corporate assets was prohibited by law, and the Government therefore decided to acquire them.”
  • Transition, Ausgaben 19-23, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Guyana, 1992, Seite 103

[404] "(157.) Hugh, Bailie of Tain. He had the misfortune to kill in a duel at Tain, 13th June 1721, Hugh Ross, sixth of Achnacloich. He retired to Gottenburg in Sweden, where he became a merchant, and afterwards at St. Mary Axe in London. On his brother's death he succeeded to Kerse and Skeldon and some other propties in Rossshire. Born 1695, and dying 13th April 1775, he was buried under the altar in the church of St. Andrew Undershaft. London, having married in Gray's Inn Chapel, 24th August 1749, Elizabeth, only daughter of Alexander Ross of Little Daan (which property she inherited), W. S., Edinburgh, and Solicitor of Appeals, London. She was buried by her husband 30th July 1793. They had three sons,
(158.) “Hugh, third of Kerse and Skeldon who died 20th January 1818, aet. 66, buried in the Greyfriars, Edinburgh, having married Janet Campbell, who died 14th November 1823, having had, with three daughters who died unmarried (of whom the second, Jane Campbell, died 2d July 1859, the third, Elizabeth Anne, died 23d March 1855, aet. 47, both being buried in the Greyfriars), three sons, of whom the eldest,
(159.) William of Skeldon, Berbice, British Guiana, born about 1788, died at Berbice 19th February 1840, having married Helen Gordon, sister to Colonel Gordon (she married, secondly, Captain Charles Metcalfe, Royal Navy), by whom, with two other sons and two daughters, he had,
(160.) William Munro (born 29th October, 1832), merchant in London, who married, 5th September, 1857, Miss A. F. Hill; she died his widow, 28th September, 1890.”
  • Rossiana; papers and documents relating to the history and genealogy of the ancient and noble house of Ross, of Ross-shire, Scotland, and its descent form the ancient earls of Ross, together with the descent of the ancient and historic family of Read, from Rede of Trough-end, Reade of Barton Court, Berks, and Read of Delaware. Also some account of the related families (1908), Seiten 34-35 archive.org

[405] „In 1846, John McConnell joined the firm which during his lifetime acquired the estates of Tuschen de Vrienden, Zeelugt, De Willen, Uitvlugt, De Kinderen, La Bonne Intention, Cane Grove, Rose Hall and Skeldon.“
  • Bookers sugar, 1954 - 126 Seiten, Seite 16-17

[406] „An Act for naturalizing Andreas Christian Boode, and his Two infant Children Phebe Boode and John Christian Boode.“

  • The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Great Britain,Sir George Kettilby Rickards, 1823, Seite xxiv

[407] „Clementina-Elizabeth-Mary, m. 6th June, 1834, to John-Christian Boode, esq. only son of John-Alexander Boode, esq. present two daughters,
  1. Christina-Ellen-Lydia.
  1. Clementina-Mary-Emma.“
  • A genealogical and heraldic history of the commoners of Great Britain and …, John Burke, 1838, Seite 330

[408] “Andreas Christian Boode

Profile & Legacies Summary
1763 - 1844
Biography
Dutch planter in Demerara, moved to Britain in the 1820s. Son of Johan Barend Christoffer Frederik (or Friedrich) Boode; brother of Anna Catharina Boode, Lodewijk Willem (L.W.) Boode and Jacobus Hendrik (J.H.) Boode; brother-in-law of Petrus Gerardus Duker (q.v.); and uncle of Jan Frederik (J.F.) Boode (q.v.).
  1. In Demerara 1810s, stepped down from seat in Court of Justice 1812. Naturalised with his 'True [or Two] infant children' Phebe Boode and John Christian Boode 1823. Bought Lucknam Park 1827, modified it, adding pillared portico front and wings
  2. Married Phoebe, daughter of Rev. T. Dannett rector of Liverpool (another daughter and heiress, Margaret Dannett, married Andreas Christian Boode's brother L. W. Boode, and was mother of Edward Cust's wife Mary Ann). Phoebe died in Bryanstone Square 1825. Daughter Phoebe married Isaac John Webb Horlock 1826. Buried St Marylebone 31/10/1844 of Lucknam Wilts aged 81 years [recorded as Andrew Christian Boode].
  3. Subscribed £5000 to Bath & Weymouth Great Western Railway.
  4. John Christian Boode only son of Andrew Christian of Amsterdam Holland, arm., matriculated Oriel College 13/05/1824 aged 18; m. Clementina-Elizabeth-Mary [daughter of Admiral Sir Henry William Bayntun, 'sole representative' of the Werden of Leyland family] 06/06/1835: one daughter Christine Ellen Lydia Boode (born abt 1835) m. John Hippisley junior 1863 and another, Constance Ellen Susette, married Benjamin Winthrop. J.C. Boode, who was born in Amsterdam c. 1807, was party to a messy case of adultery in the 1840s. At his death on 01/02/1870 he left £50,000 in personalty.
  5. Will of Andreas Christian Boode of Colerne Wiltshire proved 17/12/1844. In the will he said that he had transferred £30,000 in 3% consolidated annuities to his daughter Phoebe on her marriage to Isaac William [sic] Webb Horlock in full satisfaction of her claims on his estate (including the plantation Groote & Klyne Uitvlugt) which he left to his son John Christian Boode, with the exception of two legacies of £2500 to each of his daughter Phoebe's children by her second marriage, John Baker Dawson and Phoebe Dawson.

Sources

T71/885 British Guiana claim no. 704 (De Groote & Kleine Uitvlugt).

  1. Essequebo & Demerary Royal Gazette 1812 June 20; 4 George IV c. 37 HL/PO/PB/1/1823/4G4n175.
  2. New Monthly Magazine Vol. 40, July 1st 1825, p. 327; Monthly Magazine and British Register Vol. 28 Part 2, pp. 657-8; Ancestry.com, London, England Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980 [database online].
  3. Parliamentary Papers1837 Vol. 48 (10) Railway Subscription Contracts 10 p. Iii.
  4. Ancestry.com, Oxford University Alumni, 1500-1886 [database online]; John Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland enjoying territorial possessions or high official rank, but uninvested with heritable honours (4 vols., London, Henry Colburn, 1835-1838), vol. 4, p. 332, Werden of Leyland (which gives John Christian's father as 'John Alexander Boode' of Lucknam House; Times 08/05/1847 p. 8; National Probate Calendar 1870. Two men named 'Benjamin Winthrop' appear in William D. Rubinstein, Who were the rich? A biographical dictionary of British wealth-holders Volume 1 1809-1839 (London, Social Affairs Unit, 2009) reference 1809/20 and ibid., Volume 2, reference 1847/38: J.C. Boode's son-in-law was presumably the third generation Benjamin Winthrop.
  5. PROB 11/2008/202.
We are grateful for the help of Paul Koulen with this entry.”

[409] “British Guiana 683 (Versailles)
Claim Details & Associated Individuals
30th Nov 1835 | 351 Enslaved | £19197 11S 1D
Claim Notes
Parliamentary Papers p. 121.
T71/431 p. 927: Francis de Ridder registered 378 enslaved persons, as owner, in 1832”
  • Legacies of British Slave-Ownership, Claim 683 (Versailles) www.ucl.ac.uk

[410] “John Croal
Profile & Legacies Summary
1789 - 1853
Biography
Resident (although see below) merchant and planter, partner with Peter Rose. Will of John Croal 'of City of Georgetown Demerary' proved 08/12/1854: he had died at sea on the steamship Derwent 15/05/1853.
  1. In 1851 he was living (widower aged 62 landed proprietor, born Scotland) with his widowed daughter Julia Ethelston (aged 33, born British Guiana) at 25 Stafford Street Islington in Liverpool. In his will he left Lot no. 26 situate in Werken Rust in the City of Georgetown 'and now known as the Clarendon Hotel' to his daughter Julia for life and then to her daughter Isabel Ethelston; he left to Conrad 'the several pieces of plate that have been presented to me as Commissioner of Compensation by the inhabitants of this colony'. To his brother Alexander Croal he left his half of the barque Palmyra. The residue of his estate he left equally in trust for his five children. Among his named estates were Malgre Tout situate on the West Bank of the River Demerary; and Versailles and Regt door Zee situate on the West Bank of the River Demerary.
Sources
T71/885 British Guiana claim no. 107. T71/887 British Guiana claim nos. 2349 (Retrieve), 2369 (Elizabeth Anne), 2373 and 2508 (Lima (?)). PROB 11/2201/397 [TNA gives PROB 11/2201/342].
  1. 1851 census online; PROB 11/2201/342. “

[411] „Estate of John Croal, deceased, who died at est on board tho steamer Dcncenl, in or about the month of May, 1853, and of his Plantations, Versailles, Malgre-tout, and Palmyra.“
  • The Scrap Book and Magazine of American Literature, Band 3, Seite 96

[412] Indian Protests for Rights: Pre Independence, May 25, 2012 By admin, guyanatimesinternational.com

[413] “Mr. Des Vceux stated that his letter to Lord Granville originated in the fear of a general rising excited in his mind by the report of a riot at Leonora. This riot occurred on the 2nd of August, 1869.”
  • The Coolie: His Rights and Wrongs, Edward Jenkins, 1871, Seite


[414] “In October 1872, there was a 'riot' at Devonshire Castle and later a rising at Aliza and Mary. About October 1873. there was an uprising on the Uitvlugt Estate and other strikes of a similar nature; most of these strikes were held to demand higher wages. During 1873 particularly, the depressed conditions of the sugar market had resulted in a significant decrease in the wages.”
  • History Gazette, Ausgaben 1-2;Ausgaben 4-27, History Society, 1989, Seite 16
[415] THE LEONORA DISTURBANCES (1939) www.guyana.org 

[416] THE ENMORE MARTYRS (1948) www.guyana.org 

[417] FAILURE OF THE INTERIM GOVERNMENT (Skeldon 1957) www.guyana.org 

[418] „I don't think the Guysuco sugar factory gets many visitors. Of the few they might get, I don't think any of them are Americans with notebooks taking an excessive amount of pictures. I definitely stood out like a sore thumb, but I was given a warm welcome and everyone was very helpful. ICBU stands for Isaac Christiany Boody/Uitvlugt, which you may recognize from El Dorado's single still series we're currently selling. That's because the Savalle still was taken from the former Uitvlugt distillery, which was located right next door to the ICBU factory, so both facilities share the same name. Distilleries were built in Guyana only as part of a sugar estate, but Uitvlugt was closed in 2000 and the equipment was moved to Diamond distillery.”
[418] Report of the West India Royal Commission: With Subsidiary Report by D. Morris ... (Appendix A.) : and Statistical Tables and Diagrams, and a Map (Appendix B.), Great Britain. West India Royal Commission, Sir Daniel Morris, H.M. Stationery Office, 1897, Seite 103

[419] „1977 - Wharf
The idea of shipping rum in bulk was conceived at the end of 1976 and it was with this in mind that in 1977 the first major project was undertaken, that is, the modernisation of the wharf at Water & Schurmaker Streets, to perform berthing of bulk carriers. This project was completed in the same year.
1978 - Bulk Terminal

Market survey revealed early in 1977 that the market was moving from barreled rum to bulk rum. The feasibility study indicated that the project was viable, financing was obtained from overseas sources and construction commenced in June 1977. The Terminal was completed in April 1978, and the first bulk vessel left for Liverpool on the 13th May 1978. Guyana was one of the first countries to build a Terminal and that gave us quite an edge in the market place.“
[420] „The Guyana Liquor Corporation of which Mr. lesu Persaud is Chairman plans to increase the storing capacity of its alcohol bulk terminal by 120,000 gallons during this year. The terminal holds a quarter million gallons and the expansion will be in in the form of two 60,000 gallons units.”
  • Guyana business, Band 18,Ausgabe 1 -Band 19,Ausgabe 3, Georgetown Chamber of Commerce, 1984, Seite 13
[421] “Of the 2,700,000 proof gallons of rum which Guyana produced in 1982, some 80 per cent went to Britain and Canada. Guyana accounted for about a third of the whole UK ('dark') rum market. 

Bulk Terminal beside the Demerara River Almost 

Almost all the bulk liquor from Guyana still entered Britain through the port of Liverpool where the Guyana Liquor Company held its forth annual dinner in March 1982 at the headquarters of the Meyerside Docks and Harbour Company attended by Yesu Persaud and Guyana's Deputy High Comissioner, CJE Barker.
Proof spirit from GLC distilleries left Georgetown from their fine new Bulk Terimnal beside the river Demerara which came into operation in 1978. In twelve stainless steel tanks in the flame-proof warehouse they could store 250,000 gallons (more than a million litres). From there the spirit was pumped through a short pipeline at the rate 24,000 gallons per hour into the tank of the ship berthed at the quayside. The hold of one of the Norwegian spirit carriers such as the mv Proof Gallant could be filled with 360,000 gallons in twelve hours. Before 1978 it all had to be done in non-returnable barrels – 5,000 of them were needed to take 200,000 gallons. The whole operation (including making the barrels) which once took three months, was now completed in one. Where seven hundred people had been involved , there were now less than a hundred. From this discharging area bulk rum (some of it , as the customers wanted, in barrels or 500 gallon mobile tanks stacked on deck) was shipped to other island in the Caribbean every month, and every six weeks to West Germany, Holland, the Benelux countries, Britain and Canada on a big scale.”
  • Rum, yesterday and today, Hugh Barty-King, Anton Massel, Heinemann, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Seite 106-107
[422] „Contact Information

The Main Rum Company Limited
43 Canning Street
Liverpool
L8 7NN
United Kingdom
The Main Rum Company Limited specialises in the importation, blending and sale of bulk rum and sugar cane distillates, in particular premium aged rum. 

Mr Benjamin J. Cross de Chavannes (aka Ben Cross), a doyen within the Wine & Spirit Trade, established the company in 1984 from his London base. Since his retirement in 2003 the company has been operating from Liverpool, employing a team of experienced professionals dedicated to providing a unique service to customers worldwide.
We import rum from ACP countries (African, Caribbean and Pacific), mainly Guyana, from Central America and a variety of other rum producing countries.”
[423] “From 1952, when it was founded, Guyana Distilleries Ltd, gradually absorbed the five seperated rum distilling units, each with their seperate histories and traditions, Skeldon, Port Mourant, Blairmont, Albion and Uitvlugt, but few names of the early estate owners have survived except the Scot, James McInroy, who came to the settlement in 1782 when Demerara was Durch.”
[424] “In British Guiana increased sales of rum and of gin resulted from the year's trading, assisted by the entry of Davsons into the Booker Group. A modern distillery under the auspices of Albion Distilleries Ltd. is being erected and is expected to come into operation towards the end of 1956.”
  • International Sugar Journal, Band 58, International Sugar Journal, 1956, Seite 245

[425] “Another main Booker subsidiary is the London- based United Rum Merchants which in turn controls Bookers Rum Co. and Albion Distilleries Ltd. both of which operate in British Guiana.”
  • British Guiana: Who owns it?: What are wages and conditions? What happened? What is the meaning of the Government's policy?, Labour Research Department, L. R. D. (Publications), 1953 - 15 Seiten, Seite 8
[426] „Guyana Distilleries, with its main plant at Uitvlugt, together with its wholly owned subsidiary Demerara Distilleries, with a plant at Enmore, was a public company with more than 1200 shareholders including employees, in which the Guyana Government had a majority 70 per cent interest. Diamond Liquors (bought in 1970 by the British finance house Jessels which went bankrupt in 1974) was also a public company in 1982, with 3,000 shareholders including employees. The state had a 57 per cent interest in it. The companies had great autonomy but there was centralisation under the Guyana Liquors Corporation, of which Yesu Peraud was chairman, of marketing policy and strategy, production planning, financial policy, quality control and similar matters.”
  • Rum, yesterday and today, Hugh Barty-King, Anton Massel, Heinemann, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Seite 106
[427] „Vying with Seagram UK as producer of the 'dark rum brand later in the UK' was United Rum Merchants whose Production Director, Stanley Mullett, was one of the best known personalities in the industry. Formed in 1946 by the merger of three old established companies, Alfred Lamb & Son (founded in 1849 and bombed out of their premises during the London Blitz in World War II), White Keeling (Rum) and Portal, Dingwall & Norris, from 1947 URM had been part of the Booker McConnell Group. Based in Tooley Street, London, the company operated two independent divisions, URM (United Kingdom) Ltd and URM (International) Ltd. They had a warehouse where the blending and marrying exercise took place at Newton Bond, Dumbarton Scotland.“

  • Rum, yesterday and todayHugh Barty-King, Anton Massel, Heinemann, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Seite 191
[428] “Gin Distillery in British Guiana.1 — Albion Distilleries Ltd. (a subsidiary of United Rum Merchants Ltd. of London) have established on Plantation Uitvlugt a gin distillery producing a London dry gin for the local and West India markets.”
  • International Sugar Journal, Band 56, International Sugar Journal, Seite ix
[429] “BOOKERS RUM COMPANY LIMITED Exporters of the Finest Demerara Coloured and Uncoloured RUMS Exporters of Bookers London Dry Gin GEORGETOWN, BRITISH GUIANA Cables: " Bookerumco, Georgetown, B.G”
  • The West Indies and Caribbean Year Book, Bände 31-39;Bände 41-45;Band 47 T. Skinner, 1960, Seite 1968
[430] „The ten years 1952 to 1971 had seen the amalgamation of Skeldon, Port Mourant, Blairmont, Uitvlugt, Albion, La Bonne Intention and other smaller distilleries; all part of a British Guiana sugar industry dominated by Bookers, which had been sold off to Guyana Distilleries, the private company they had formed in 1952. When Bookers sold Guyana Distilleries to the Guyana Government in 1976 they received G$278,000 in cash (63,000) and 428,000 in Guyana Government six per cent promissory notes payable over twenty years. Part of the agreement was the provision of services by Bookers in the UK, including the international marketing of bulk rum. The year 1979 saw a 41 per cent increase in bulk rum sales for Guyana Distilleries over the previous year, and a 22 per cent increase for...”

  • Rum, yesterday and todayHugh Barty-King, Anton Massel, Heinemann, 1983 - 264 Seiten, Seite 106
[431] “The vacuum pan dates from 1813 when Edward Charles Howard, a brother of the 12th Duke of Norfolk, patented his invention, but Howard's sound predictions of its usefulness to the sugar industry took time to prove correct. By 1827, of the 100 refiners in and around London, only 10 had installed these pans. A refinery in Vienna, laid out by Howard in 1818, was the first on the continent of Europe to use the vacuum pan, and in Magdeburg in 1835 it appears for the first time in the beet sugar industry.Sir John Gladstone, father of the prime minister, became the first sugar cane planter to use vacuum pan when in 1832 he installed one on his estate, Vreed-en-Hoop, in demerara (Guiana).”
  • The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from Its Origins to 1914, J. H. Galloway, Alan R. H. Baker, ‎Richard Dennis, 2005, Seite 137 books.google.de
[432] “The first horse driven mill was erected in Essequibo in 1664, the vacuum pan was first used in the raw sugar industry at Vreed-en-Hoop in Demerara in 1832, and British Guiana was the first British West Indian colony to attempt East Indian immigration. Jenman started the collection and examination of cane varieties in 1881, and produced the first Demerara seedlings the year after the re-discovery in Barbados and Java of the fertility of cane seed.”
  • The Sugar Industry of the Caribbean, Caribbean Research Council. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, Fisheries, and Forestry, Caribbean Commission, 1947 - 343 Seiten, Seite 13
[433] “The issue was for a short time rejoined when in 1832 the first colonial sugar processed in a vacuum pan reached this country from British Guiana and was subjected on arrival in Bristol to the prohibitive duty for refined sugar of £8 8s. per cwt, because “ it had undergone such a process of refinement as to render it inadmissible as Muscavado sugar,” as the Treasury declared when appeal to it was made by the importers.1
  • Colonial Plant and Animal Products, Bände 1-2, H.M. Stationery Office, 1950, Seite 14
[434] "Der Zucker wird in flache Holzkasten entleert, von allem Schmutz und Knötchen sorgsam befreit, gemischt und entweder in Säcke oder in mit Papier ausgelegte Tonnen verpackt. Auserlesene schöne Partien kommen in kleinen Säckchen zum Versandt. --- Der I. Ablauf wird mit Wasser verdünnt und so viel Kalk zugesetzt, bis das Gemisch alkalisch reagirt; darauf wird im besonderen Vacuum das Gemisch leicht eingekocht und, wenn fertig, in Krystallisationskasten oder Schalen gelassen. Nach etwa 14 Tagen ist die Krystallisation beendet und wird die Masse geschleudert. Der enthaltene Zucker II ist hell und feinkörnig; von gutem Geschmack und enthält 86 bis 88 Proc. Rohrzucker, er gelangt wie das I. Produkt ohne weitere Reinigung in den Handel als Consumzucker. Ist der für Nachprodukte ein lohnender, so wird der II. Ablauf nochmals eingekocht, wenn notwendig mit erneutem Kalkzusatz. Nach 4-6 monatigem Stehen erhält man daraus einen ganz ähnlichen Zucker wie das II. Produkt ist. Der entstandene III. Ablauf wird zu Rum verarbeitet; bemerkt sei hier noch, dass der Rum von dieser Arbeitsweise nicht so gut ist als der von Muscovadoplantagen erhaltene. --- Anstatt den I. Ablauf mit Kalk einzukochen, wurden gute Erfolge mit Soda angewandt."
  • Jahresberichte über die Leistungen der chemischen Technologie, Band 35, Johannes Rudolf Wagner, Ferdinand Fischer, Paul F. Schmidt, Berthold Rassow, Friedrich Gottschalk, O. Wigand, 1890, Seite 979
[435] “British Guiana rum is produced by a rapid fermentation extending from 36-48 hours by setting up a wash of molasses diluted with water at a density of about 1,060. The wash is set up slighdy acid, and in some distilleries additions of sulphate of ammonia in small quantities are made in order to supply readily available nitrogenous food for the yeast.
...
Demerara rum is the product of pure yeast fermentation, and has not a high flavour like other rums of slow fermentation where wild yeasts and bacterial organisms are given every opportunity to increase at the expense of the yeast proper.”
[436] “103. As is shown in Table XXXII, nine of the Colony's sixteen factories have a distillery attached to them. For the manufacture of rum, the molasses is run into huge fermentation vats and water and sulphuric acid are added, the whole process being controlled by the estate's chemist. These vats are arranged in a series of rows in a separate section of the factory. After fermentation, which is rapid, usually taking about 28 hours, the rum is distilled. It leaves the stills as clear colourless liquid, almost pure alcohol, and is piped to other large vats, where for a time, it ,matures.

104. Next the colouring matter, burnt sugar, is added in varying quantities to suit the particular markets to which the different consignments are to be sent. It is a curious fact that Canada and North Britain like their rums dark-coloured, true " Nelson's blood," while a more anaemic hue is in demand in the Midlands and almost pure white is preferred in the South of England. When finally mixed to the right colour and matured, the rum is poured into casks and stored in bond under strict control of Customs officials. We inspected the books and organization of a number of these distilleries and rum stores and were impressed by the efficient way in which they were run.”
  • Report, Great Britain. Commission of Inquiry into the Sugar Industry of British Guiana, H.M. Stationery Office, 1949 - 184 Seiten, Seite 47
[437] “The flavour of the rum may differ from Martinique to Guyana, Puerto Rico to Trinidad (Caroni's home island), but the prices are much the same. Indeed, now that the continuous still is being used the rum flavours are matching each other more and more closely. The Cubans have in the past filtered rum through charcoal to rid it of the pungent 'con generics' that are so characteristic of the old and coarser or 'heavier' versions. Now the patent still can purify the spirit to its desirable modern characterlessness, leaving only the faintest contrasts between one Caribbean product and another.”
  • The Spectator, Band 219, Ausgabe 1, F.C. Westley, 1967, Seite 170
[438] “The proper manufacture of good colouring matter for rum is very important. For this purpose the best sugar should be selected and placed in sufficient quantity in a pan on an independent fire. The sugar must be constantly stirred with a wooden paddle during the action of the fire on the pan, in order to prevent its getting a singed taste or flavour ; and when it it comes to a consistency, making it difficult to keep it in motion with the paddle, the fire must be withdrawn, and high wines gradually added to it under the agitation of the paddle, until it comes to a consistency of thick cream, so that the whole will be perfectly dissolved. After this, it should be put into a cask placed on end, with two cocks, one about six inches from the bottom of the cask, the other about two inches from the bottom, and allow to remain undisturbed, in order to its depositing the sediment, until it runs off from the upper cock entirely free of sediment. It may the be used for colouring the rum, and about three pints of good colouring matter well concentrated ought to be sufficient for 100 gallons of spirit ; but different markets require different shades of colour, and to regulate the shade of colour the rum must be left to the judgment of the person entrusted therewith. Great care must always be taken that the colouring matter does not impart any cloudiness to the rum, because when rum is cloudy the value of it is greatly deteriorated. I would always recommend colouring matter to be made in large quantities, because the longer it is kept the purer it becomes.”
  • "A manual of plantership in British Guiana", Alexander MacRae, 1856, Seite 46
[439] "Darker rums gain their colour either from the simple introduction of caramel or by maturation in oak casks (colouring is said to have been first introduced to suit the Navy, anxious not to have a colorless spirit aboard which could visually be mistaken for water!)."
  • Drink in the UK: an analysis of alcoholic drinks, markets, and distribution, Band 1, Lloyd Chilvers, Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), Economist Intelligence Unit, 1989 - 429 Seiten, Seite 64

[440] "The rum was a dark blend of five rums from Demerara and Trinidad which had been blended and bottled on the island of Tortola in the Crown Colony of the British Virgin Islands. The colour was also in keeping with tradition, since this naturally golden rum was always darkened to camouflage any cloudiness in the water when it was mixed with the rum to produce the grog."
  • Customs and Traditions of the Canadian Navy, Graeme Arbuckle, Nimbus Pub Limited, 1984 - 179 Seiten, Seite 109
[441] Interview von 7. Juli (Tuesday) 1908 durch Mr. F. H. D, Jlan ; NAVY RUM: Trinidad & Demerara
"Mr. Frederick Henry Dumas Man called.
12992. (Dr. Bradford) What is your firm? -- E. D. and F. Man, Colonial Brokers.

12993. That is a firm of old-standing, is it not? – It dates back to 1783.

12994. How long have you yourself been in the business? -- Twenty-Nine years.

12995. What is the nature of your business? -- We deal in Colonial produce – sugar, rum, cocoas, etc. We have got from three-quarters to seven-eighths of the rum trade, and a small fraction of the sugar trade.

12996. Is your trade exclusively in Jamaican rum? – Not at all—any rum.

...

13009. You are employed by the Admiralty, are you not? -- Yes, we buy their rum.

13010. Do you buy all the rum for the Navy? -- Yes, all.

13036. Do you think that would generally be the view of people who are engaged in the trade of rum generally and not confined to Jamaican rum? -- I am sure that would that would be their view. We once supplied the Admiralty with Jamaica rum (they usually take Demerara and Trinidad) and the sailors did not like it so well.

13037. But you sell more Jamaica rum than anything else, do you not ?—No, I do not think so. It varies according to the crop.

13038. You do not know which predominates ?—What we call the proof rum, that is rum other than Jamaica.

13039. The bulk of the Navy rum, what is that? --That would be proof rum – not Jamaican.

13040. Proof rum, I take it, is an expression of your own over there? -- A trade expression. It means to say that the rum is sold per proof gallon.

13041. (Dr. Bradfort) But that rum is largely patent still rum? -- Chiefly patent still rum."
  • Report[s] of the Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits ..., Great Britain. Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits, Baron Henry James James, Printed for H.M. Stationery Off., by J. Truscott & Son, ltd., 1908, Seite 19 – 21

[442] "The company was founded in 1783, by James Man, a barrel maker.[6] The following year the company secured the contract to supply the Royal Navy with the rum for its daily “rum tot”, a tradition under which all sailors were allocated a daily ration of rum.[6] (This tradition continued until 1970, with Man holding the contract throughout the entire period.) In 1860 Edward Desborough Man and Fredrick Man (grandsons of James Man) gave their initials to the name of the company, ED & F Man.[6] Today, ED & F Man operates separately as a commodities trading business."

[443] "ROYAL. NAVY. Rum Rations and Allowances. Mr. FOOT asked the Parliamentary Secretary to the Admiralty the number of naval ratings over 20 years of age who are in receipt of rum ration in kind, and the number who are in receipt of money allowance in lieu of rum; the cost to the Admiralty of the rum ration per man and...
...
Mr. AMMON: The number of ratings over 20 years of age who are in receipt of rum ration in kind is approximately 43,000 ; the number, also, over 20 years of age, who are in receipt of money allowance in lieu is approximately 27,000. The cost price to the Admirality of rum ration is about 3/4 d. per man, and the rum is obtained principially from Demerara and Trinidad."
  • Parliamentary Debates: Official Report, Band 170, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, H.M. Stationery Office, 1924, Seite 723

[444] “Commander Agnew: I agree, but I did not experience those conditions.
While I was looking through the Votes in connection with the necessary arrangements to be made in respect of victualling yards abroad, it struck me that there was one item connected with salaries and wages of the police which has undergone a very marked increase this year as compared with the Estimates for the previous year.

They relate to overtime, which has shown very great increase from £700 to £5,500. It is possible that the wages and salaries of the police have been increased all round and that this has caused inflation of the figures, or there may be shortage of men on police duty at the victualling yards and in consequence they may have had to do overtime to keep the full roster of protection. I should be grateful for information on that point.

What is the present source of supply of the rum issued to the Royal Navy? It used to be very good dry rum from British Guiana, but I understand that almost all the vintage stocks were purloined by the Army in World War I and that the Admiralty has never quite caught up with the quality. 

Mr. K. Robinson: Did the hon. and gallant Member experience the particularly nasty Australian rum that we had during the war? 

Commander Agnew: I do not think I met it. It was only by connivance and a slight irregularity that I was able to get a quantity of rum, but never sufficiently frequently to become a connoisseur. Does the Admiralty still use British Guiana rum and keep it in store, maturing it in victualling yards for a reasonable number of years before issuing it to the Fleet? 

Mr. R. Bell: My hon. and gallant Friend the Member for Worcestershire, South (Commander Agnew) has referred to grog. I was interested in the comments he made about the vintage grog. I have heard that the Army nobbled the stock, but I have also heard it suggested that the Army laid it down as port. The trouble with the Navy was that, having got some fine dry rum it used to wet it and issue it to the men as grog. 

I see a mention in this Vote that those who do not like grog can take rum money in lieu. I have always thought it was to some extent a hardship that that privilege was not extended to officers, who have always taken a certain part of their emoluments as duty-free tobacco and alcohol. We always thought during the war that the fact that the Navy received half of its remuneration in that rather intangible form had the most unfortunate effect upon the calculation of naval pay in relation to Army pay.

Whenever a discrepancy was pointed out, it was suggested that that was either because admirals received higher pensions than field marshals or because naval officers received duty-free tobacco and drink. During the six years that I served in the Royal Navy, as I did not smoke, I had to consume quite a ridiculous amount of gin in order to get my basic rate of pay. The result of such an intensive course as that has been to make me not only a non-smoker but a nondrinker. It has occurred to me that it might not be at all a bad idea if some of this advantage, at any rate in relation to tobacco, were quantified so that naval officers could receive a substantial part of the reward for the valuable services they render to Her Majesty in the form of currency rather than of benefits in kind. 

I have always thought, though I do not wish to elaborate on it now, that the Navy did a little worse on its victualling than did the other Services. Again, it was always pointed out to us that we paid so much lower in mess subscription than did the Army or the Air Force that it was right that we should be less well paid, but I think it is true that the victualling of the Navy costs a good deal less than that of the other Services. If that is so, it would appear that naval officers are not only on the whole rather less well paid than are their counterparts in the other two Services but that the Navy does not feed them as well either. 

Mr. E. G. Willis (Edinburgh, East): I have two points in mind about the grog issue. First, I should like to know to what extent the habit of taking payment in lieu of grog is increasing or decreasing. There was at one time a tendency, I understand, for the number of those draw-pay in lieu of grog to increase. Perhaps the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary can give some information on that matter.

Secondly, the payment made in lieu of taking the grog is still the same as it was years and years ago—3d. I should have thought that anyone not taking his grog today was entitled to rather more. I do not know how the Admiralty's finances are affected, but the exchange value of grog on board ship is certainly higher than 3d., whether measured in terms of service or of barter. The amount was 3d. when I was in the Service, which is a long time ago, and that was the figure a long time before that. If the Admiralty were to increase the amount to something respectable, it is possible that quite a number of other men would no longer draw their grog, but at present it is a good bargain and can sometimes work wonders. It is really time that the Admiralty examined this allowance. 

Mr. Ward: The answer to the question about the seamen's new uniform is that, if there are no unforeseen production difficulties we should be able to start issuing it to the Fleet in about six months' time. It will cost about £28,000 a year more than does the existing uniform. 

The hon. Member for St. Pancras North (Mr. K. Robinson) asked about the reduction in the amount of money provided for victualling. I can say that there is no decrease whatever in the standard of the food but there is, of course, a smaller number of men in the Navy, which accounts for the reduction in that figure. 

Several hon. Members have talked about grog and grog money. I must confess that I used to like rum until about fifteen years ago, when I made the mistake of walking round a rum factory in Jamaica. The smell was so abominable that I have never been able to drink rum since. Nevertheless, I understand that it is very popular in the Navy. Supplies come, not from British Guiana or, my hon. and gallant Friend the Member for Worcestershire, South (Commander Agnew) will be glad to hear, from Australia, but from Jamaica or Barbados.”
  • Parliamentary Debates (Hansard).: House of Commons Official report, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, H.M. Stationery Office, 1956, Seite 657-658
[445] "Contrary to general belief, none of the Navy's rum comes from Jamaica; it is a blend of rums hailing from Demerara, Trinidad and Barbados."
  • The Nautical Magazine, Bände 185-186, 1961, Seite 206
[446] Administration Reports, for the Year 1901, Seite 87-88

[447] GuySuCo-2009-Annual-Report, de.scribd.com 

[448] „Sugar production increased by 16,000 tonnes in 2011

…Albion produces more than Skeldon

Several technical problems continued to plague the sugar sector in 2011. However, the Guyana Sugar Corporation (GuySuCo) was able to reap an increase of 16,000 tonnes in comparison with the previous year. It produced more than 237,000 tonnes of sugar last year recording a slight increase over 221,000 tonnes in 2010.
Bad weather, low yield and an unstable work force were factors which contributed to the sugar company not achieving 300,000 tonnes, a figure which the sugar industry had announced at the beginning of 2011 that it was aiming to achieve.
With the above mentioned issues affecting GuySuCo during last year, the figure was depreciated to 282,000 tonnes, and then was further revised to 240,000 tonnes.
Meanwhile, sugar production continued until the inclement weather prematurely ended 2011’s sugar crop.”

[449] “GEORGETOWN, Guyana (CMC) — Guyana produced more than 218 thousand tonnes of sugar last year blaming industrial action and the inclement weather for the 7.8 per cent decline over the previous year. Agriculture Minister Dr. Leslie Ramsammy speaking at an ‘Honour’s Roll’ ceremony for workers employed with the state-owned Guyana Sugar Corporation (GuySuCo) said total production for 2012 was 218,070 tonnes.
He said this was attributed to industrial relations disruptions and inclement weather patterns which continued to plague the industry during the first half of the year. A dry weather spell aided the industry during the second crop; however, the first crop contraction of 33.4 per cent could not be compensated for by the second crop growth of 13.3 per cent.
“The glory days of GuySuCo are not at an end…we will rise again to even more glorious days that we have had in the history of the sugar industry,” Ramsammy said, adding that the government had to bring the industry out of its almost death bed in the 1980s. He said GuySuco, would continue to be a pillar in the development of the economy as it is more that an industry, it is essential to the country and too important to fail.
“We all have one goal and that goal is a better Guyana…we were once a poor highly rejected bankrupt country, and today we are a middle income country,” he said.
Ramsammy reminded the workers that, “these are difficult times, but it doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t continue to try and we will work to overcome those difficulties”. He said he remains optimistic that GuySuco will not only recover, but attain heights as never before.
“We will make sure that we put this industry on the road of success…we have the capacity and the will to work closer together to have a greater understanding,” he said, adding “you have been our success and you remain the promise of success in the future”.”
[450] “Chand wants bigger sugar target next year

says 300,000 tonnes achievable with good management

BY VAHNU MANIKCHAND

Guyana Agricultural and General Workers’ Union (GAWU) President Komal Chand said the Guyana Sugar Corporation (GuySuCo) must work harder to set and achieve a target of 300,000 tonnes of sugar for next year. But he pinned this on overall good management of the struggling industry.

This year’s target is 219,000 tonnes, which the Corporation said it would meet easily. The first crop was successful, surpassing the 75,000 tonnes target, bringing in about 80,000 tonnes. Sugar production came in at a dismal 186,500 tonnes for 2013, but Guyana has been taking steps to turn around the sugar industry and hopes to meet the 300,000 tonnes-target soon, with a projection that the sector will reach its 400,000-tonne goal by 2020.”
  • Chand wants bigger sugar target next year , September 29, 2014 By GuyanaTimes , www.guyanatimesgy.com 
[451] “DISTILLERS

Albion Distilleries Ltd., 22 Church St.

Bookers Rum Co. Ltd., 8-1 1 Water St.

D'Agiuar Bros. (D.I.H.) Ltd., Coral St. and Brick- dam.

D'Andrade Trading Co. Ltd., Robb and High Sts., Georgetown

Demerara Co. Ltd., 43-46 Water St.

Diamond Liquors Ltd., Bank of Guyana Bldg., High and Church Sts.

Guyana Distilleries Ltd., 30-31 Regent and Hincks Sts.

Wight, R. M., Ltd., Water St.”

  • The West Indies and Caribbean Year Book, Bände 31-39;Bände 41-45;Band 47, T. Skinner, 1960, Seite 234



[452] “DISTILLERS
Albion Distilleries Ltd., 22 Church St.
Bookers Rum Co., 8-11 Water St.
D'Agiuar Bros (D.I.H.) Ltd., Coral St. and Brickdam
D'Andrade Trading Co. Ltd., Robb and High Sts., Georgetown
Demerara Co. Ltd., 43-46 Water St.
Diamond Liquors Ltd., Sandbach Parker Bldg., 47-47 Water St.
Guyana Distilleries Ltd., 30-31 Regent and Hincks Sts.
Wight, R. M., Ltd., Water St.”
  • Caribbean yearbook, Band 7, 1972, Seite 224

[453] “In 1804, he moved his business from his small merchants premises in Cornwall, England to London and soon casks of the finest rums were brought across the high seas from the Caribbean, to be blended into a rare and magnificent product which today, nearly two centuries later, remains a drink to be savoured.“
  • Hart Historical Notes, Ausgaben 1-38, Hart Communications, 1993, Seite 168

[454] The eighteenth century clippers ran home their cargoes from the West Indies to the west coast ports, and Mr. Lemon Hart, one of the earliest importers of rum into England, established his firm in 1804 in Penzance.“
  • Great Britain and the East, Band 67, Great Britain and the East, Limited, 1951, Seite 48



[455] “His business, founded in 1804, passed into the hands of the Norris family (the firm of Portal, Dingwall & Norris), and is now part of United Rum Merchants, who also own Lambs' Navy Rum and the famous Daiquiri, beloved of thriller writers.”
  • The Illustrated London News, Band 258, Illustrated London News & Sketch Limited, 1971, Seite 30

[456] „The finished rum is very strong, usually about 150 to 160 degrees U. S. Proof. Like all distillates, Rum is colorless, so it is later colored with burnt sugar, which also adds to its flavor. Afterwards it is run into puncheons holding about 130 to 140 gallons. As the distributing market for Jamaica Rum has for centuries been London, practically all of the best plantation rums have been contracted for by London firms. New Jamaica rum are shipped to the London docks. There they mature under perfect storage conditions of moderate and even temperature. The London docks contain the greatest collection of rum in the world, amounting to tens of thousands of puncheons. The "London Dock" Jamaica Rums have in this way earned the reputation of being the finest of all Jamaica Rums, vastly superior to any aged in and shipped direct from the Island of Jamaica.

Two of the oldest and the most important of these London firms are Henry White & Co., established in 1842, shippers of the Red Heart Jamaica rum, which has been the leading brand in the markets of the world for over sixty years, and E. H. Keeling & Son, established in 1822, shippers of the well- known Royal Navy Jamaica Rum.“
  • Simple Facts about Wines, Spirits, Ale and Stout, Alex D. Shaw & Co, Alex D. Shaw & Company, 1934 - 64 Seiten, Seite 47

[457] „N.S. 4798. RED HEART—Word Mark. Wares: Rum. Date of first use: 15th May, 1877— Date of registration: 17th June, 1935. White, Keeling (Rum) Limited, London, E.C., England.“
  • Canadian Patent Office Record, Band 64,Teil 1, Canada. Patent Office, 1936, Seite iii,

[458] „1990s
Craft brewing was a growing trend in Canada, and in 1991 Corby acquired a minority stake in Upper Canada Brewing Company Limited. In 1994, Corby’s majority shareholder, Allied Lyons, acquired Casa Pedro Domecq to become Allied Domecq, at the time the world’s third largest spirits company. The following year, Corby decided to refocus on spirits and wine and sold its interest in Upper Canada Brewing. In 1996, Corby acquired the remaining interest in the Montréal distillery from De Kuyper that it did not own previously. The facility provided co-packing services to North American brand owners looking for liqueur expertise. In 1998, the Corby head office was moved from Montréal to Toronto.“

[459] „2000s
The new millennium marked the beginning of a new era of growth and innovation for Corby. In 2005, Pernod Ricard S.A. along with Fortune Brands acquired the assets of Allied Domecq and split Allied’s portfolio. As a result, Pernod Ricard became Corby’s majority shareholder. In September 2006, Corby and Pernod Ricard entered into long-term representation and production agreements, adding such international market-leading brands as Chivas Regal, The Glenlivet Scotch Whiskies and Jacob’s Creek wines to Corby’s sales portfolio for the Canadian market. Corby also acquired the international rights to Lamb’s rum and Seagram Coolers, and sold its 45% interest in Tia Maria to Pernod Ricard S.A. In 2008, Corby added the global powerhouse vodka brand ABSOLUT to its representation portfolio through an agreement with Pernod Ricard.
[460] „2000 – 2008 – Rare Whiskies and New Brands
At the close of the century, William Grant & Sons acquired 30% of Highland Distillers and its award-winning brand portfolio, which includes The Macallan, Highland Park and The Famous Grouse Scotch Whiskies

The first decade of the new millennium was greeted with characteristic passion and commitment. In 2001, the Glenfiddich 1937 was bottled, making it the oldest single malt Scotch whisky in the world. Only 61 bottles of this rare whisky exist.

A series of successful new product launches included Hendrick’s Gin (2002) - named ‘the best gin in the world’ by the Wall Street Journal; Sailor Jerry Spiced Rum (2002) - a blend of Caribbean rum, vanilla, lime and spices; Monkey Shoulder (2005) - which broke the malt whisky mould when it launch in the UK in 2005; and Reyka Vodka (2005) - a small- batch premium vodka distilled at Iceland’s first and only distillery. A large number of new acquisitions included the brands: Wood’s Old Navy Rum, Old Vatted Demerara (OVD) and Gibson’s Finest Canadian Whisky (all 2004); the premium French brandy company Raynal & Cie (with which William Grant & Sons added the French grape brandies, Three Barrels and Raynal to its portfolio) and a 51% stake in Tequila Milagro (2008). 

In 2006, William Grant & Sons opened new offices in Taiwan and Shanghai to manage the sales, marketing and distribution of the company’s brands in Asia. In 2007, William Grant & Sons commissioned its new malt distillery, Ailsa Bay, in Girvan next to its existing grain whisky distillery.

William Grant & Sons’ Master Blender, David Stewart, celebrated 45 years at the company in 2008. He is the longest serving Master Blender to remain with any one distiller in the industry.

In 2008, William Grant & Sons also signed a pan-European distribution deal with Rémy Cointreau and a multi-market distribution deal including the USA with Stolichnaya Vodka.”




[461] "Seale believes one reason white rum enjoyed renewed growth was "Because is does not produce the hangovers and headaches of coulered rum". Caramel and other additives, along with the wooden casks dark rum was aged in, affected the colour and flavour of the rum, he said. And, he added, they contributed to the negative "after effects" of drinking as well."

  • The New Bajan, s.n., 1990, Seite 39



[462] “In the UK two brands vie for first place in the standard dark rum market: Seagram's Captain Morgan, and United Rum Merchants' (URM) Lamb's Navy. Allied-Lyons purchased URM from Booker McConnell in 1984. Seagram and URM also compete in Scotland where OVD (Old Vatted Demerara), Seagram's Scottish brand leader, is in a close race with Black Heart from URM. In both markets the Seagram brands lead, but only just. So how are Seagram and URM tackling the problem of a declining market? Seagram's UK marketing manager for spirits, John Cornish, describes the problem: 'If you look at the dark rum market place, it's being drunk by predominantly older and is concentrated into a relatively small proportion of heavy users. That's fine at the moment, but you are looking at the next ten years. That market is going to disappear and you haven't got the same level of heavy usage in the age group 25 to 45.' These long term problems have led both companies to pitch for younger drinkers in the past. Their quandary is how to attract the young without alienating the old. However, dark rum's youth appeal has thus far failed to emerge, so Captain Morgan is still directing its ads at the older macho man. This year's budget is estimated at about £1.6m. URM's Lamb's Navy is also being handled gently. There have been some label changes and a new hexagonal bottle, but there are no drastic alterations planned for the brand's image.“

  • Wine and Spirit International, Evro Publishing Company, 1989, Seite 67



[463] “103. As is shown in Table XXXII, nine of the Colony's sixteen factories have a distillery attached to them. For the manufacture of rum, the molasses is run into huge fermentation vats and water and sulphuric acid are added, the whole process being controlled by the estate's chemist. These vats are arranged in a series of rows in a separate section of the factory. After fermentation, which is rapid, usually taking about 28 hours, the rum is distilled. It leaves the stills as clear colourless liquid, almost pure alcohol, and is piped to other large vats, where for a time, it ,matures.



104. Next the colouring matter, burnt sugar, is added in varying quantities to suit the particular markets to which the different consignments are to be sent. It is a curious fact that Canada and North Britain like their rums dark-coloured, true " Nelson's blood," while a more anaemic hue is in demand in the Midlands and almost pure white is preferred in the South of England. When finally mixed to the right colour and matured, the rum is poured into casks and stored in bond under strict control of Customs officials. We inspected the books and organization of a number of these distilleries and rum stores and were impressed by the efficient way in which they were run.”

  • Report, Great Britain. Commission of Inquiry into the Sugar Industry of British Guiana, H.M. Stationery Office, 1949 - 184 Seiten, Seite 47
[464] Interview between Ingvar Thomsen and Yesu Persaud in 2005. Fax, dated from 14/08/2005 (15/06/2006)


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